Tivoli - Kambala School- Rose Bay
Kampala is an independent Anglican day and boarding school for girls located on one campus in Rose Bay in the eastern suburbs of Sydney. It was established in 1887. The school moved to its current premises in 1913 and the property was originally known as "Tivoli" with a house designed by John Horbury Hunt.
Tivoli - Kambala School - Rose Bay
Kambala is an independent Anglican day and boarding school for girls located on the one campus in Rose Bay and eastern suburb of Sydney. The school located to the current property in 1913 which included a house called "Tivoli" which was designed by prominent architect John Horbury Hunt.
Sydney Grammar School
Sydney Grammar School
Sydney Grammar School is an independent nondenominational they School for boys located in Darlinghurst Edgecliff and St Ives in Sydney Australia. The school has approximately 1900 students from preschool to year 12. The school was incorporated in 1854
Glenrock - Ascham School
Ascham School is a non -denominational School situated in Edgecliff near Sydney with approximately 1000 students and was established in 1885
Gowan Brae The Kings School Parramatta
Geelong Grammar School
St Ignatius College Riverview
Saint Ignatius' College Riverview is a Roman Catholic, day and boarding school for boys located in Riverview, a small suburb situated on the Lane Cove River on the Lower North Shore of Sydney,
Pymble Ladies CollegeChapel
Pymble Ladies College is an independent, non-selective, day and boarding school for girls, located in Pymble, a suburb in the North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Pymble Ladies' College was founded in 1916 by Dr John Marden.
Newington College Stanmore Sydney
Newington College Sydney is an independent, Uniting Church, day and boarding school for boys, located in Stanmore, an inner-western suburb of Sydney
Glenleigh Queenwood School Mulgoa Penrith
Robson House Shore Sydney Church of England Grammar School
Kincoppal School Chapel
Cranbrook School Rotunda
On Saturday, November 20 2006 the Cranbrook Rotunda was officially renamed the John Saunders Pavilion after an old boy Mr John Saunders A.O. (1922-1997) SaundersThe Rotunda was carefully and painstakingly restored in keeping with the original building designed by the famous architect Mr Horbury Hunt in 1875. This was made possible by the generous support of the Saunders family.Rotunda
The Rotunda was designed for the Hon. James White as a tennis pavilion and although the date is uncertain, it was around 1880 and moved to its present location in 1918.
The building is a one storey timber construction except for concrete steps and supporting brick walls and piers.The steel pipe supporting awnings, servery shutters and the concrete steps were added about 1960 when the rotunda was equipped as a tuckshop.
The intricate detailing of the external timber cladding and the "umbrella" roof structure of the central section are amongst the best examples of Horbury Hunt's mastery of design in timber. The building is painted internally and externally.rotunda roof
The present day use of the Rotunda as a venue for entertaining following cricket, rugby and athletics echoes its historic use. It was classified by the National Trust in 1975
Ewan House Knox Grammar School
Knox Grammar School Pipe Band
Knox Grammar School is particularly well known for its Pipe Band.
Glenrock Ascham School Staircase
The historic Glen Rock building at Askham School is home to a marvellous cedar staircase designed in 1878.
Glenrock Staircase - Ascham School
Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview
Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview is a Roman Catholic, day and boarding school for boys, located in Riverview, a small suburb situated on the Lane Cove River on the Lower North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Established in 1880 by Fr. Joseph Dalton, SJ, of the Society of Jesus, Saint Ignatius' is a Jesuit school in the tradition of St Ignatius of Loyola. It is part of the international network of Jesuit schools that began in Messina, Sicily in 1548. Saint Ignatius' College has a non-selective enrolment policy and currently caters for approximately 1,560 students from Years 5 to 12, including 335 boarders in Years 6 to 12.
The college is a member of the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia (AHISA), the Junior School Heads Association of Australia (JSHAA), the Australian Boarding Schools' Association, and is a founding member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales (AAGPS).
Earliest known school group photo, c. 1880s
Following Archbishop Roger William Bede Vaughan OSB's invitation to the Jesuits to Sydney, on condition that they found a boys' boarding school, and the bequest of Fr John Joseph Therry, who on his death in 1864 left the greater part of his property to the Society of Jesus, Fr Joseph Dalton SJ concluded arrangements for the purchase of the Riverview property on 28 June 1878. Dalton became founding Rector of the college.
Its first students were brought to the school as advertised in the Catholic newspaper The Express, whereby boys aged between 8 and 12 would be received at Riverview "as soon as possible after the Christmas holidays." Classes commenced with two students on 11 February 1880, in a small stone cottage on the Riverview estate.
The original cottage became very cramped with greater numbers and in order to provide better accommodation St Michael's House was built. The building was designed by W W Wardell and opened on the feast of Saint Michael, 29 September 1880. In 1882 a wooden boatshed was built for rowing and in 1883 the Infirmary took shape.
In its early years the College offered Classical and Modern Languages, History, Mathematics, the Natural Sciences and all other branches required for the Civil Service, the Junior, Senior and Matriculation Examinations', along with a modern touch - mercantile subjects.
St Ignatius' campus viewed from main building, 1930s
By December 1882, with an enrolment of only 70 boys, the College extended the curriculum to include English Composition, Writing, Music, Singing, Drawing, Painting, Irish History and Oral Latin.
Lessons were taught six days a week. Prayers began the day at 6.15 am, followed by Mass and study before breakfast at 8.30 am and concluded with night prayers at 8.30pm. On Sundays and holidays the boys were allowed to sleep in until 6.30am.
Within seven years of its founding, keen observers were taking notice. In 1887, James Francis Hogan wrote in The Irish in Australia that:
"St. John's College, affiliated to the University of Sydney; St. Ignatius' College, Riverview, conducted by the Jesuit Fathers; and St. Joseph's College, Hunter Hill (sic), under the management of the Marist Fathers (sic, actually the Marist Brothers), are three educational institutions that reflect the highest credit on the Catholic population of the parent colony".
The main building of the college was constructed in three stages between 1885–1930 and the foundation stone was laid by Cardinal Moran, Archbishop of Sydney on 15 December 1885. As originally designed by Gilbert, Dennehy and Tappin, of Ballarat, the building was to be a huge square, representing four identical fronts, but only the South front was completed according to plan due to financial constraints.
The organ in the chapel was built in 1910 at a cost of £460 by Charles Richardson and installed in 1911. By the 1970s the organ was becoming unreliable and the college organist at the time, Peter Meyer, contracted Arthur Jones to rebuild it in 1976.
Although the first dayboys were not officially admitted until 1923, there was a small group of pupils who were permitted to attend the college as dayboys. In fact, up until the 1960s dayboys remained relatively small in number and Riverview was mainly for boarders.
Wallace Wing, Main Building, Middle School from First Field
In the lead up to the 2003 Iraq war, the three school captains wrote a letter to the Prime Minister, John Howard, calling for a withdrawal of Australian troops from the Persian Gulf and for a non-military solution. They told Howard a poll of 574 students at the College showed 75 per cent were against Australian military participation in Iraq, regardless of the United Nations’ position.
During February 2005, students sang for Pope John Paul II outside his hospital in Rome as part of the 2005 Pilgrimage of Hope. The students had previously met the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, meditated in Assisi, and worked the streets and orphanages of Calcutta with Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity.
The year 2005 saw Riverview play host to a series of 125th Anniversary celebrations culminating in a whole school mass at St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney on the feast of Ignatius, 31 July.
Riverview, as the school is frequently referred to, has adopted the motto, Quantum Potes Tantum Aude, which may be translated from Latin as "As much as you can do, so much dare to do", or formerly "Dare to do your Best". This motto is taken from a song of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1227–1274) entitled Lauda Sion Salvatorem ('Praise, O Sion, Praise Thy Saviour'). The next line after Quantum Potes Tantum Aude is Quia Maior Omni Laude, which, together, translates to "As much as you can do, so much dare to do, because He is above all praise".
AMDG: Statue of St Ignatius below Ramsay Hall
It is a longstanding practice that students, particularly in the lower years of the college, write A.M.D.G. in the top left hand corner of any piece of work they do. This stands for Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam which means "To The Greater Glory Of God": a central theme of Jesuit Philosophy. Traditionally, at the end of a piece of work they wrote L.D.S. in the centre of the page, a practice which is no longer widespread. This stands for Laus Deo Semper which means "Praise to God Always", another traditional Jesuit motto.
 Jesuit education
Jesuit education aims at individual care and concern for each student. Riverview has developed an academic program and Pastoral Care system, which seeks to enable each boy to reach his full potential as a person of faith, created and loved by God.
Statue of the Sacred Heart in Rose Garden; Main Building
Society of Jesus Superior General Peter Hans Kolvenbach wrote in The Characteristics of Jesuit Education that the "ideal is the well-rounded person who is intellectually competent, open to growth, religious, loving and committed to doing justice in generosity to the people of God".
Riverview's Jesuit partner schools include St Aloysius' College in Sydney, Saint Ignatius' College, Adelaide, Xavier College in Melbourne, Loyola College, Mount Druitt, Clongowes Wood College in County Kildare, Ireland and Stonyhurst College in Lancashire, England.
St Ignatius' College offers students the opportunity to participate in a number of co-curricular activities including:
Amnesty International Club: (1980s–2007) The Riverview Amnesty International group has been suspended due to inability to find a replacement for the previous Master-in-Charge. Students within the college are making ongoing attempts to find a suitable replacement member of staff. Until then, the program remains suspended.
Debating and Public speaking: (1881–) 35 GPS 1sts Premiership Winning Teams (since 1964), and 5 between 1920 and 1963 , 22 Lawrence Campbell Oratory Winners since its institution in 1935, 12 Australian Schools Debating team members (some students for 2 years) (instituted 1972 - present) and 31 NSW School Debating team members (instituted 1971 - present) (some students for 2 years).
St Ignatius' College also offers a range of co-curricular activities including music, drama, and digital media and photography.
In 2008 Riverview celebrated the 100th year of rugby union football at the college. This was also a very successful rugby season with Riverview becoming co-premiers in 1st XV with Kings and they were also outright 2nd XV Premiers
2002 was Riverview's second most successful year. GPS Premierships were won in 1st XI and 2nd XI soccer, 1st and 2nd tennis, 1st XI cricket, 2nd XV rugby, U/16 cross country, junior and senior athletics, 2nd IV/3rd IV/4th IV rowing, 1st/2nd debating. Riverview also won SDN Senior Debating and CSDA Year 10 debating along with U/14 North Shore AFL.
In 2008, St Ignatius' College completed one its most successful years. Riverview won both the Shared 1st XV and Outright 2nd XV GPS Rugby premierships, Undefeated 1st XI and 2nd XI GPS Football Premierships and also successfully defended the 1sts GPS Debating Premiership and Riverview also won the 2nds GPS Debating competition. Earlier in the year, Riverview also won the Junior GPS Athletics championship, were second in Senior GPS Athletics, won the 1st GPS Tennis competition and were 2nd in the 2nd GPS competition by default they would have otherwise been 1st had they not been stripped of their points during one of the rounds, The points were taken off when they were allowed to move their players up as one had to pull out of the doubles due to injury. The opposition allowed this change to happen thinking that they had the advantage of defeating Riverview. However Riverview beat their opponents and so the opposition complained and the board of the gps stripped Riverview of that round allowing Shore to win. The 2nd Riverview tennis team still held their heads high in 2nd, the 2nd V GPS Basketball competition and also won the 1st Waterpolo Premiership.
Riverview continued its all round co curriculum success in 2009. In the GPS summer season, the following premierships were won: 2nd V basketball, Junior Swimming, Yr10 4thJVIII HOTR, 2nd Waterpolo and won all classes of the Sydney Independent Schools Tri-Series Sailing competition. Riverview were runners up in 1stV Basketball, Senior swimming and 16A waterpolo. In athletics, Riverview were runners up in Junior and Senior competitions. In Winter, Riverview were co-premiers in 1stXV and outright 1stXI Football winners. Riverview were second in 2ndXV Rugby and 2nd XI football. Riverview were also undefeated in 16A, 15A and 13A rugby.
Australian rules football: (1880–1892 and 1984–) In 2004, Riverview became the first GPS school to field an Australian Rules team in the under-18s division of the Sydney Football League. In December 2003, Sydney Swans coach Paul Roos said:
"I think it's terrific. The hardest thing for us is when most kids finish up Auskick and want to continue playing AFL, it can be difficult. There's a lot of kids who want to play AFL and who don't get the chance. The more private schools get involved, the better. It's great for students, it's about kids making the decision themselves about what sport they want to play".
In 2005, the Riverview under 18 team won that very same competition.In 2007 Riverview 1stXVIII won the premiership. Many say it was the best game played by Riverview.
Football: (1987–) Riverview hosts all four football codes (including AFL and Football) on its main ground. The director of co-curriculum activities at the College, and co-ordinator of both GPS and NSWCIS Football, C.J. Kitching, said in 2004: "It's not just about using your grounds effectively, it's a gesture to say we value all our boys do. There is a real emphasis here on equity and participation and opportunity. A happy boy, doing what he wants to do, creates a happy school".
Martial arts–Tae Kwon Do: (1989–)
St Ignatius' eight-oar crew, c.1932
Tennis: (1882–)One of the many successful sporting teams at Riverview, with both the 1st and 2nd grade teams sharing 20 premierships since 1990.
Rowing: (1882–) The school has held the Riverview Gold Cup on the Lane Cove River since 1893.
Rugby league: (2003–) In 2003, Riverview became the first GPS school to field an open-age rugby league team. This team played in an National Rugby League (NRL) knockout competition hosted by St Gregory's College, Campbelltown, on 31 May and 1 June. The NRL offered to help the College get its rugby league program off the ground, as did former league stars Steve Roach, Steve Gearin and Paul Langmack.
Rugby Union: (1892–) Of the premiership winning 2003 game against St. Joseph's College, Hunters Hill where Riverview triumphed 20-18, Mike Carlton wrote:
"The match was a ripper, one of the best I have seen all year, played with tremendous skill and courage and, yes, passion... (played)before perhaps 25,000 people at the Joeys ground. It may well have been the biggest football crowd in Sydney that day, packed 10 and 20 deep in places. The score: Iggies 20, Joeys 18. Rugby famously began as a schoolboy game, and long may it stay one".
Rifle Club and Cadets: (1885–1974)
Surf Lifesaving: (1987–) Riverview commenced active participation in lifesaving as a sport in the 1986–1987 summer season, largely due to the urgings and efforts of Chris Hammond (OR 1981–86), who was a member of the Freshwater SLSC. Boys who participate in SLS are required to obtain at least their Surf Rescue Certificate (SRC) and then their Bronze Medallion, and consequently carry out patrols on a monthly basis.
 House system
Main Building, St Ignatius' College
The House System was established in 1983 with the aim of improving the quality of care for students. There are twelve Houses, each consisting of approximately 80 boys from Years 9-12, with a Housemaster and five tutors in each House. Housemasters are concerned with the academic and pastoral development of boys under their care. In so doing, the House System at Riverview aims to develop the "well-rounded person", as Fr Peter Hans Kolvenbach SJ emphasised in the Characteristics of Jesuit Education:
"In a Jesuit School the atmosphere is one in which all can live and work together in understanding and love, with respect for all men and women as Children of God. Jesuit Education insists on individual care and concern for each person...Cura Personalis (concern for the individual person) remains a basic characteristic of Jesuit Education".
From an initial eight Houses in 1983, four more were added in 1997 to reflect the growth in the student population.
Houses meet each Tuesday for a Mini-House Meeting where weekend sport and procedural matters are discussed for fifteen minutes. They also meet once every three weeks for a 50 minute long 'House Meeting' where the student leadership of year 12 run pre-planned activities.
Main Building 2009, St Igatius College
Each House is divided into five tutor groups made up of students from Years 9–12. Approximately three students from each of these year groups are in every tutor group, led by a senior teacher. Tutor Groups meet after recess three times per week for fifteen minutes and engage in a range of activities, culminating in a biannual tutor group outing.
Kevin Fagan House behind First Field's Away Grandstand
With a boarding student population of 335, Riverview is one of the largest boarding schools in New South Wales. Officially a boarding only school until the 1920s, the Day Boys remained a small minority until the late 1960s. The College now has a majority of day-boys.
A number of Boarding Houses and refectories ('refs') are located on the College grounds. There is a junior refectory for Years 6–11 and a senior refectory for Year 12 (rhetoric) and staff members. Jesuit schools have always grouped their Boarders horizontally according to age groups, called Divisions. This means that each group of boys to be cared for as a homogenous age group. As a boy progresses from one of the six Divisions to the next, there is a freshness of environment. In Junior and Year 8 Divisions, boys have their own cubicle within a dormitory of eight. In Years 9 and 10 Divisions boys may sleep in a room of four or a single room. In Year 11 Division boys share a room while in Year 12 Division have single rooms, with both years being housed within the newly built Kevin Fagan House. Junior and Year 8 Divisions have a separate study area within the division while from Years 9-12 boys study at their own desk in their room.
 Preferred futures
College from First Field
In 2005, the 125th year of the College, a project of community discussion developed a plan published as Riverview 2025: the preferred futures. A a series of talks by esteemed members of the community canvassed the future of the Church and Riverview's place in preparing its students for a changing world. The first forum began with journalist Geraldine Doogue interviewing social commentator Hugh Mackay on the direction Australian society is heading. The second address of the night focussed on the youth of Australia and was given by 1998 Young Australian of the Year Tan Le.
The second forum's keynote address was by the Auxiliary Bishop of Sydney, Anthony Fisher OP, Dux of the school in 1977. After an address by member of the Human Rights Council of Australia Harris Van Beek on the relevance, authenticity and organisational issues of the Church, Bishop Fisher spoke to Values and the Future of Church and Religion as we know it. In this talk he stated that:
"First, Catholic schools must in the future give the teaching of Catholic faith and morals pride of place. Secondly, the Catholic religion (must) be increasingly visible in our school environment the more invisible it becomes elsewhere in our culture. Thirdly, Catholic schools will need to integrate...social activism, community service, leadership skilling and teamwork, arts and sciences, with other aspects of Catholic faith and practice and name them precisely as aspects of that Catholic faith and practice rather than compartments of life distinct from it".
Main Building, St Ignatius' College
In the final forum both Geraldine Doogue and headmaster of St Ignatius' College, Adelaide Fr. Greg O’Kelly S.J. highlighted the spiritual quest of many people today. Each presented that the education of the future would need to nurture an enquiring mind in an educational environment that includes reflection.
Discussions on the issues brought up by the talks gathered together over 3000 members of the Riverview community, including students, old boys, Jesuits, and past and present teachers.
The proposals envision students as either male or female; "primary, secondary, tertiary, adult or senior", and call for an on-campus centre for scholarship in teaching and learning. Such a centre would teach the precepts of Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, re-energising the laity amidst declining religious vocations. Further, the College would engage in giving its students a series of overseas immersion experiences that reveal the world and the need to act to bring about the Greater Glory of God within it, perhaps moving to a more vocational leaving certificate such as the International Baccalaureate.
The centre would teach Jesuit bachelor degrees in education and hold residencies for overseas teachers and the staff of other Australian Jesuit schools. As the number of Jesuit staff members at the College declined from over 20 in the 1970s to 4 in 2005, Headmaster Shane Hogan told the Sydney Morning Herald, "we need to go into teaching education ... if there's no one here to influence (the students) when they get here, then they might as well be teachers from anywhere".
For Bishop Fisher, the College will need to succeed "in communicating a fully human, Ignatian, Catholic vision", so that it, amidst widespread atheism, can "demonstrate that it has (something) to say that the world does not already know".
 Old Ignatians Union
Established in 1897, the alumni association of Saint Ignatius' College is named the Old Ignatians' Union or OIU, and has a mission to "sustain and strengthen the connection between Old Ignatians and to further the interests of the College." Reunions and fundraisers are held to help the Development Office fundraise bursaries. Old Boys also partake in sporting competitions through such institutions as the Old Ignatians Rugby Club.
 Notable alumni
Alumnus of Saint Ignatius' College are known as Old Ignatians. For a list of notable Old Ignatians, see List of Riverview Old Ignatians.
Buses run inside the school and there is a ferry wharf for students to travel to and from school. Buses include the 632 to Chatswood, the 650 to Mosman, the 651 to Northbridge and the 654 to Drummoyne. The ferry runs down the Lane Cove River, stopping at Hunters Hill, Longueville, Northwood and Greenwich, then continuing to Birchgrove, Kirribilli and Circular Quay.
 See also
List of non-government schools in New South Wales
List of boarding schools
Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition
Old Ignatians' Rugby Football Club
^ "Mission Statement". Prospectus. Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview. 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ "Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview". New South Wales. School Choice. 2007. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ a b c "Annual Report 2006" (PDF). General Information. Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview. 2007. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ "History of the Jesuits in Australia". Our History. Australian Jesuits. 11 February 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ "AHISA Schools: New South Wales". Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia. April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ "JSHAA New South Wales Directory of Members". Junior School Heads' Association of Australia. 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ "St Ignatius' College - Riverview". New South Wales Schools. Australian Boarding Schools Association. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ "AAGPS History". Info. Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales. 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
^ "125 years Riverview College". News Article. Australian Jesuits. 11 February 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
^ Hogan, James Francis, The Irish in Australia, 1887. Reproduced by Project Gutenberg (retrieved 15 June 2006).
^ St Ignatius' College Chapel, Sydney Organ, (retrieved 22 October 2006).
^ Noonan, Gerard (28 February 2003). "Truants or not, many school students to rally against invasion". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 June 2006.
^ Thompson, Matthew (4 February 2005 (retrieved 22 October 2006)). "John Paul becomes schoolboys' audience". The Sydney Morning Herald.
^ Aquinas, Thomas, Lauda Sion Salvatorem, Latin and English translation (retrieved 6 June 2006).
^ Raper, Mark, 125th Anniversary St Ignatius Day Mass 2005 Homily, St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, 31 July 2005 (retrieved 6 June 2006).
^ Kolvenbach, Peter Hans, Jesuit Education: Society of Jesus Education Documents (retrieved 12 June 2006).
^ Kolvenbach, Peter Hans, The Characteristics of Jesuit Education, 1986.
^ Raper, Mark, The Characteristics of Jesuit Education in Australia - Mission, Governance and Directions, 'Australian Province Education Ministry Conference', Anglesea, 27 April 2006 (retrieved 12 June 2006).
^ Saint Ignatius' College Diary (2011), pp. 197 - 200
^ Saint Ignatius' College Diary (2011), pp. 197 - 200
^ Halloran, Jessica (16 December 2003). "AFL takes territory in Sydney rugby's private school heartland". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 June 2006.
^ Coultan, Mark (14 June 2004). "Prime time for beautiful game". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 June 2006.
^ May, A.L (1970). "4. The Amateur Question: 1890-1900". Sydney Rows. Guerin-Foster History of Australian Rowing. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
^ Govorcin, Damir (6 April 2003). "Rugby league scores a try in a GPS college". The Catholic Weekly. Retrieved 21 June 2006.
^ Carlton, Mike (13 September 2003). "Talent scout for heaven's game?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 June 2006.
^ Fisher, Anthony, Faith, Ethics and the Future of the Catholic School, Ramsay Hall, St Ignatius' College, Riverview, 2 March 2004 (retrieved 6 June 2006).
^ Thompson, Matthew (4 February 2005 (retrieved 6 June 2006)). "St Ignatius toys with allowing girls as Jesuits fade away". The Sydney Morning Herald.
^ "Sydney Jesuit school considers female students". Catholic News. 4 February 2005. Retrieved 21 June 2006.
^ "Old Ignatians Union Homepage" — (retrieved 21 June 2006).
^ "Old Ignatians Rugby Club" — (retrieved 21 June 2006).
 External links
Timbertop Chapel - Geelong Grammar School
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George;[fn 1] born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent and eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Since 1958 his major title has been His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales. In Scotland he is additionally known as The Duke of Rothesay. He is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history.
Charles was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun Schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School, Victoria, Australia, situated near Mansfield in the rugged Victorian Alps. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Trinity College, Cambridge, Charles served a tour of duty with the Royal Navy in 1971–76. He married Lady Diana Spencer before an enormous worldwide television audience in 1981. They had two sons, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in 1982 and Prince Harry of Wales in 1984. The couple separated in 1992 following tabloid allegations concerning their relationship. They divorced in 1996 after Diana publicly accused Charles of having an affair with Camilla Parker Bowles, and Charles admitted adultery on television. Diana died in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. In 2005, after a lengthy continued association, the Prince married Camilla, who uses the title Duchess of Cornwall.
The prince is well known for his charity work and sponsors The Prince's Trust, The Prince's Regeneration Trust, and the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment, among other charities. He has been outspoken concerning architecture and the conservation of old buildings and has produced a book on the subject called A Vision of Britain (1989). He has also promoted herbal and other alternative medical treatment.
The Royal Family of the
United Kingdom and the
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HM The Queen
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
HRH The Prince of Wales
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall
HRH The Duke of Cambridge
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
HRH Prince Harry of Wales
HRH The Duke of York
HRH Princess Beatrice of York
HRH Princess Eugenie of York
HRH The Earl of Wessex
HRH The Countess of Wessex
Lady Louise Windsor
HRH The Princess Royal
HRH The Duke of Gloucester
HRH The Duchess of Gloucester
HRH The Duke of Kent
HRH The Duchess of Kent
HRH Prince Michael of Kent
HRH Princess Michael of Kent
HRH Princess Alexandra
Charles was born at Buckingham Palace on 14 November 1948 at 9.14 pm (GMT), the first child of then Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Baptised in the palace's Music Room on 15 December 1948, using water from the River Jordan, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, the Prince's godparents were: the King (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his cousin, for whom the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); the Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece (his paternal granduncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle). By letters patent of Charles' great-grandfather, King George V, the titles of a British prince or princess, and the style Royal Highness, were only to be conferred on male-line children and grandchildren of the sovereign, as well as the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. However, on 22 October 1948, George VI issued new letters patent granting these honours to any children of Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip; otherwise, Charles would have merely taken his father's title, and been titled by courtesy as Earl of Merioneth. In this way the children of the heiress presumptive had a royal and princely status.
When Charles was aged three his mother's accession as Queen Elizabeth II, immediately made him the heir apparent to the then seven countries over which she now reigned. He was ipso facto elevated to the rank of Duke of Cornwall (by a charter of King Edward III that gave said title to the sovereign's eldest son), and, in the Scottish peerage, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. Though he moved to first in line to the throne in the United Kingdom order of precedence he is third, after his parents, and is typically fourth or fifth in other realms' precedence orders, following his mother, the relevant vice-regal representative(s), and his father. Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother and aunt. As is customary for royal offspring, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of 5 and 8. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, making him the first heir apparent ever to be educated in that manner.
Charles first attended Hill House School in West London, receiving non-preferential treatment from the school's founder and then head, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football, as the boys at Hill House were never deferential to anyone on the football field. The Prince then attended his father's former school, the Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, England; and was finally moved to Gordonstoun, in the north-east of Scotland. Reportedly the Prince despised his time at the latter school – "Colditz in kilts", as Charles put it – though he did spend two of his terms at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Geelong, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a history trip with his tutor, Michael Collins Persse. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy, and left in 1967 with two A Levels in History and French.
Tradition was broken again when Charles proceeded straight from secondary school into university, as opposed to joining the Armed Forces. On the recommendation of Robin Woods, Dean of Windsor, and despite only gaining grades of B and C in his A Levels, the Prince was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge University, where he read anthropology, archaeology, and history, tutored by Canadian-born Professor John Coles. He graduated with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts on 23 June 1970, the third Royal Family member to earn a university degree. On 2 August 1975 he was subsequently awarded a Master of Arts Degree from Cambridge, per the university's tradition. During his tertiary, Charles also attended the Old College (part of the University of Wales, Aberystwyth), studying the Welsh language and Welsh history. He is the first Prince of Wales born outside of Wales ever to attempt to learn the language of the principality.
Created Prince of Wales
Main article: Investiture of the Prince of Wales
Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958, though his investiture as such was not conducted until 1 July 1969, wherein he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle, and gave his replies and speech in both Welsh and English. A Welsh nationalist campaign opposed to the investiture tried unsuccessfully to disrupt the ceremony. The following year he took his seat in the House of Lords, and later in the decade became the first member of the Royal Family since King George I to attend a British Cabinet meeting, having been invited by Prime Minister James Callaghan so that the Prince might see the workings of the British government and Cabinet at first hand. Charles also began to take on more public duties, founding his The Prince's Trust in 1976, and travelling to the United States in 1981.
Queen Elizabeth II formally invests The Prince of Wales with the Prince of Wales crown, in 1969
Around the same time the Prince expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia; Commander Michael Parker explained: "The idea behind the appointment was for him to put a foot on the ladder of monarchy, or being the future King and start learning the trade." However, because of a combination of nationalist feeling in Australia and the dismissal of the government by the Governor-General in 1975, nothing came of the proposal. Charles accepted the decision of the Australian ministers, if not without some regret; he reportedly stated: "What are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are told you are not wanted?" Conversely, Tom Gallagher wrote that Charles had been offered the Romanian throne by monarchists in that country; an offer that was reportedly turned down. The Romanian press again picked up this story in autumn 2011, but Buckingham Palace denied the reports.
The Prince is at present the oldest man to hold the title of Prince of Wales since it became the title granted to the heir apparent. He is also the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in Commonwealth realms' history and the third longest serving Prince of Wales in British history behind Edward VII and George IV, whom he will pass on 10 October 2017 if he is still Prince of Wales on that date. If he ascends to the throne after 18 September 2013, Charles would be the oldest monarch of the United Kingdom to do so; only William IV was older when he became monarch than Charles is now.
Military training and career
Prince Charles arrives at Andrews Air Force Base in the United States, 1981
Following in the tradition of Princes of Wales before him, Charles spent time in the navy and air force. After Royal Air Force training that he requested and received during his second year at Cambridge, on 8 March 1971 the Prince flew himself to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot. After the passing out parade in September of that year, he then embarked on a naval career, enrolling in a six–week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth and then serving on the guided missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). Charles also qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton in 1974, just prior to joining 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes, and on 9 February 1976 the Prince took command of the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington for his last nine months in the navy. Prince Charles learned to fly on a Chipmunk basic pilot trainer, a BAC Jet Provost jet trainer, and a Beagle Basset multi-engined trainer, he then regularly flew the Hawker Siddeley Andover, Westland Wessex and BAe 146 aircraft of The Queen's Flight.
The Prince in Buckingham Palace in 1974, by Allan Warren
Prince Charles' love life was always the subject of speculation and press fodder. In his youth, he was linked to a number of women, including Georgiana Russell, daughter of the British Ambassador to Spain; Lady Jane Wellesley; Davina Sheffield; Fiona Watson, a model; Susan George; Lady Sarah Spencer; Princess Marie-Astrid of Luxembourg; Dale, Baroness Tryon; Janet Jenkins; and Jane Ward. Not only is Charles the heir apparent to the thrones of the Commonwealth realms, a marriage was also expected to raise future monarchs. Consequently his choice of consort was going to create immense popular interest. In particular the reputation of the bride was going to be a major consideration, in addition to his mother's approval under the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Under this Act marriage to a Roman Catholic would automatically debar him and the marriage's Catholic issue from succession.
Charles was given written advice on dating and the selection of a future consort from his father's "Uncle Dickie", Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma: "In a case like yours, the man should sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down, but for a wife he should choose a suitable, attractive, and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage." Mountbatten had a unique qualification for offering advice to this particular heir to the throne: he had invited George VI, Queen Elizabeth, and their daughters to visit Dartmouth Royal Naval College on 22 July 1939, having also detailed Cadet Prince Philip of Greece to keep the young princesses company, arranging the first documented meeting of Charles' future parents. In early 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Elizabeth and Philip's eldest son about a potential marriage to Mountbatten's granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull (b. 26 June 1957), and recommended that the 25-year-old prince get done with his bachelor's experimentation. Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother, Lady Brabourne (who was also his godmother), about his interest in her daughter, to which she replied approvingly, though suggesting that a courtship was premature.
This did not daunt Mountbatten, who, four years later, obtained an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his 1980 tour of India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip complaining that the Prince of Wales would be eclipsed by his famous uncle (who had served as the last British Viceroy and first Governor-General of India), while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would rivet media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple, thereby potentially dashing the very prospect for which Mountbatten hoped. However, before Charles was to depart alone for India, Mountbatten was killed in an IRA murder during August 1979. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda. However, in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother Nicholas in the attack and now recoiled from the prospect of becoming a core member of the Royal Family. In June 1980 Charles officially turned down Chevening House, placed at his disposal since 1974, as his future residence. Chevening, a stately home in Kent, was bequeathed, along with an endowment, to the Crown by the last Earl Stanhope, Amanda's childless great-uncle, in the hope that Charles would eventually occupy it.
TRH The Prince and Princess of Wales with Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan in November 1985
Although Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer in 1977—while visiting Diana's home, Althorp, as the companion of her elder sister, Sarah—he did not consider her romantically until the summer of 1980. While sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July he mentioned Mountbatten's death, to which Diana replied that Charles had looked forlorn and in need of care during his uncle's funeral. Soon, according to Charles' chosen biographer, Jonathan Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride." She accompanied the Prince on visits to Balmoral and Sandringham, eliciting enthusiastic responses from most of the Royal Family.
Although the Queen offered Charles no direct counsel, his cousin Norton Knatchbull (Amanda's eldest brother) and his wife, Penny, did. But Charles was angered by their objections that he did not seem in love with Diana and that she seemed too awestruck by his position. Meanwhile, the couple continued dating, amidst constant press speculation and paparazzi coverage. When Prince Philip told him that the intrusive media attention would injure her reputation if he did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that Diana met the Mountbatten criteria (and, apparently, the public's) for a proper royal bride, Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.
Engagement and wedding to Diana
Main article: Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer
Charles and Diana's wedding commemorated on a 1981 British Crown (25 pence).
Prince Charles proposed to Lady Diana Spencer in February 1981, she accepted, and when he asked her father for her hand, he consented. After the British and Canadian privy councils gave their approval for the union (which was sought as the couple was expected to produce an heir to those countries' thrones), the Queen-in-Council gave the legally required assent, and, 29 July, Charles and Diana were married at St Paul's Cathedral, before 3,500 invited guests and an estimated worldwide television audience of 750 million people. All of the Queen's Governors-General, as well as Europe's crowned heads, attended (save for King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who was advised not to attend because the newlyweds' honeymoon would involve a stop over in the disputed territory of Gibraltar). Most of Europe's elected heads of state were also amongst the guests, with the exceptions of the President of Greece, Constantine Karamanlis (who declined because Greece's exiled monarch, Constantine II, a kinsman and friend of the bridegroom, had been invited as "King of the Hellenes"), and the President of Ireland, Patrick Hillery (who was advised by Taoiseach Charles Haughey not to attend because of the dispute over the status of Northern Ireland).[fn 2]
TRH The Prince and Princess of Wales with Sandro Pertini
The couple made their homes at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and Kensington Palace. Almost immediately, the new Princess of Wales became a star attraction, chased by the paparazzi, and her every move followed by millions through the mass media. The couple had two children: Princes William (born 21 June 1982) and Henry (known as "Harry") (born 15 September 1984). Charles set precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births. Persistent suggestions have been made that the father of Harry is not Charles but James Hewitt with whom Diana had an affair. These suggestions have been based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However Hewitt stated to the press in 2002 that Harry had already been born by the time the affair between him and Diana began.
Separation and divorce
The union between the Prince and Princess of Wales soon became troubled; within five years, the "fairytale" marriage was on the brink of collapse. The continued presence of Camilla Parker Bowles in events and circumstances that also involved the royal couple became intolerable to Diana. Allies of Charles[who?] who spoke both publicly and off the record against Diana alleged that she was unstable and temperamental; one by one, she apparently[weasel words] secured the dismissal of many of Charles' long-standing staff members and fell out with his friends, as well as members of her own family– her father, mother, and brother– as well as members of the Royal Family, such as Sarah, Duchess of York. To the Palace's regret, the Princess sought counsel outside generally accepted sources of royal advice. In response to the succour sought by the Prince, Diana responded in kind. Charles, however, was also blamed for the marital troubles, as he resumed his adulterous affair with Parker Bowles. Though they remained a couple in public, Charles and Diana had effectively separated by the late 1980s, the Prince living in Highgrove and the Princess at Kensington Palace. Their increased periods apart and obvious discomfort in each other's presence began to be noticed by the media, and this, plus evidence and recriminations of infidelity, were broadcast in tabloids and the news. By 1992, the marriage was over in all but name; in December of that year, then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, John Major, announced in the British parliament the Prince and Princess' formal separation, after which the media began to take sides, starting what came to be known as the War of the Waleses. In October 1993, Diana wrote to a friend that she believed her husband was now in love with Tiggy Legge-Bourke and wanted to marry her. The marriage of Charles and Diana was formally ended in divorce on 28 August 1996.
On 31 August 1997, a year after the Prince and Princess divorced, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris, along with her companion Dodi Fayed and driver Henri Paul. The Prince of Wales overruled the palace protocol experts– who argued that as Diana was no longer a member of the Royal Family, the responsibility for her funeral arrangements belonged to her blood relatives, the Spencers– and flew to Paris, with Diana's sisters, to accompany his ex-wife's body home. He also insisted that, as the mother of the presumed future king (her son William), she be given a formal royal funeral; a new category of formal funeral was especially created for her.
In 1993 the British tabloids came into the possession of recordings of a 1989 telephone conversation allegedly between the Prince of Wales and Camilla Parker Bowles, in which Charles expressed regret for the indignities she had endured because of her relationship with him, and which revealed graphic expressions of a physical intimacy between the two.
Engagement and wedding to Camilla
Main article: Wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Camilla Parker Bowles
Charles and Camilla in Jamaica, 13 March 2008.
Clarence House announced on 10 February 2005 that Charles and Camilla Parker-Bowles were engaged; the Prince presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother. In a Privy Council meeting on 2 March, the Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded. In Canada, however, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and thus would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.
The marriage was to have been on 8 April of that year, and was to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at St George's Chapel. But, because the conduct of a civil marriage at Windsor Castle would oblige the venue thereafter to be available to anyone wishing to be married there, the location was changed to the Windsor Guildhall. On 4 April it was announced that the marriage would be delayed by one day to allow for the Prince of Wales and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II. Charles' parents did not attend the marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend arising from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh did, however, attend the service of blessing, and held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle, afterwards.
Act of Penitence
A unique feature during the Blessing of Charles and Camilla's marriage by the Archbishop of Canterbury was the inclusion of the strongest act of penitence from the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. The royal couple led the congregation in declaring:
We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, which we, from time to time, have committed by word, thought and deed, against thy Divine Majesty, provoking most justly thy wrath and indignation against us.
Legality of civil wedding
The wedding made Charles the first member of the Royal Family to have a civil, rather than religious, wedding in England. Official documents had been published by BBC that stated such a marriage was illegal, though these were dismissed by Clarence House, and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Duchess of Cornwall are greeted by Tobago House of Assembly Chief Secretary, Orville London.
In his years as heir apparent, the Prince of Wales has taken on a wide array of interests and activities, and devoted his time and effort to charity work and collaborating with local communities. Since founding The Prince's Trust, he established fifteen more charitable organisations, and now serves as president of all of those, plus two others; together, these form a loose alliance called The Prince's Charities, which claim to raise over £110 million annually. Charles is also patron of over 350 other charities and organisations, and carries out duties related to these throughout the Commonwealth realms; for example, he uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education. The Prince was described by his ex-private secretary as a dissident who works against majority political opinions. Jonathan Dimbleby has reported that the Prince "has accumulated a number of certainties about the state of the world and does not relish contradiction."
The Prince of Wales has frequently shared his views on architecture and urban planning in public forums, claiming to "care deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life." He is known to be an advocate of neo-traditional ideas, such as those of Christopher Alexander and Leon Krier, which were illustrated in his 1984 attack on the British architectural community in a speech given to the Royal Institute of British Architects, describing a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London as a "monstrous carbuncle". Charles also published a book and created a documentary entitled A Vision of Britain, which critiqued some aspects of modern architecture. Despite criticism from the professional architectural press, the Prince has continued to put forward his views, stressing traditional urbanism, the need for human scale, and the restoration of historic buildings as an integrated element of new development and sustainable design. Two of the Charles' charities in particular forward his theories on design: The Prince's Regeneration Trust (formed by a merger of Regeneration Through Heritage and the Phoenix Trust in 2006) and The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment (which absorbed The Prince of Wales's Institute of Architecture in 2001). Further, the village of Poundbury was created at the instigation of Prince Charles, with a master plan by Leon Krier.
Charles assisted with the establishment of a National Trust for the built environment in Canada, after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country's historic urban cores. He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in the creation of a trust modelled on the British variant, and, with the passing of the 2007 federal budget by his mother's representative in Canada, a Canadian national trust was finally fully implemented. In 1999, the Prince also agreed to offer the use of his title to the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places. Charles has also been the recipient of awards for his efforts in regard to architecture, such as the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize he received in 2005, while visiting the United States and touring southern Mississippi and New Orleans to survey the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina; he donated $25,000 of the prize money to help restore communities damaged by the storm.
Starting in 1997 the Prince of Wales also visited Romania to view and draw attention to some of the destruction caused during the Communist rule of Nicolae Ceauşescu, particularly Orthodox monasteries and Saxon villages of Transylvania, where he purchased a house. Charles also became patron of two Romanian built environment organisations: the Mihai Eminescu Trust and the International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture, and Urbanism, an advocate of architecture that respects cultural tradition and identity. Charles also has “a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture”, and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies which combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.
Charles' involvement in architecture has also attracted controversy, especially his personal intervention to redesign projects whose architectural style or approach he has disagreed with. He has been especially opposed to styles such as modernism and functionalism. Richard Rogers, recipient of the Pritzker Prize and Stirling Prize, has described the Prince's personal intervention in projects as "an abuse of power" and "unconstitutional". In 2009 Charles wrote a letter to the Qatari royal family, the developers of the Chelsea Barracks site to be designed by Rogers, that suggested his design was "unsuitable". Subsequently, Rogers was removed from the project and The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment was appointed to propose an alternative. Rogers has also claimed the Prince intervened to stop his designs for the Royal Opera House and Paternoster Square.
Charles' personal interventions have attracted critique from prominent members of the architectural community. Norman Foster, Zaha Hadid, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, Renzo Piano, and Frank Gehry among others wrote a letter to The Sunday Times to this effect; each is a recipient of the Pritzker Prize. They wrote that "private comments" and "behind-the-scenes lobbying" by the Prince counteracted the "open and democratic planning process" in the case of the Chelsea Barracks project. Similarly, Piers Gough CBE and other architects wrote a letter encouraging colleagues to boycott Charles' address to the Royal Institute of British Architects, with Gough calling Charles' views on architecture "elitist".
The Prince of Wales attending the royal launch of the Revolve Eco-Rally, 2007, with Sir Stirling Moss and Zac Goldsmith
Since the early 1980s, Charles has taken a keen interest in environmental issues, taking a leadership role in promoting environmentally sensitive thinking. Upon his moving into his Highgrove estate, he became increasingly focused on organic farming, an attention that culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand: Duchy Originals, which now sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products, from food to garden furniture, the profits from which (£6 million, as of 2008) are donated to The Prince's Charities. Documenting this work on his estate, Charles co-authored (with Charles Clover, environment editor of the Daily Telegraph) Highgrove: An Experiment in Organic Gardening and Farming, published in 1993, and offers his patronage to Garden Organic. Along similar lines, the Prince of Wales became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade; though the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic in England prevented Charles from visiting farmers in Saskatchewan, organic farmers there came to meet him at the Assiniboia town hall. In 2004, he also founded the Mutton Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons. His organic farming efforts, however, attracted media criticism: According to The Independent in October 2006 "...the story of Duchy Originals has involved compromises and ethical blips, wedded to a determined merchandising programme." and, in February 2007, Duchy products themselves came under attack, with the tabloid Daily Mail claiming that the food was "unhealthier than Big Macs." In 2007, Charles also launched The Prince's May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change.
An announcement was made by Clarence House in December 2006 that the Prince of Wales would make his household's travel arrangements more eco-friendly and, in 2007, Charles published in his annual accounts the details of his own carbon footprint, as well as targets for reducing his household's carbon emissions. That same year, he received the 10th annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Environment, the director of which, Eric Chivian, stated: "For decades the Prince of Wales has been a champion of the natural world... He has been a world leader in efforts to improve energy efficiency and in reducing the discharge of toxic substances on land, and into the air and the oceans". However, Charles' travel by commercial airliner to the United States to attend the award ceremony drew criticism from some environmental activists, such as the Plane climate change action group's campaigner Joss Garman, and in April 2009 he faced similar criticisms for chartering a private jet for a five day tour of Europe to promote environmental issues.
The Prince gave a speech to the European Parliament on 14 February 2008, in which he called for European Union leadership in the war against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Nigel Farage, the leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), was the only MEP to remain seated and went on to describe Charles's advisers as "naive and foolish at best." Farage continued: "How can somebody like Prince Charles be allowed to come to the European Parliament at this time to announce he thinks it should have more powers? It would have been better for the country he wants to rule one day if he had stayed home and tried to persuade Gordon Brown to give the people the promised referendum [on the Treaty of Lisbon]."
The Prince gave a speech to the Low Carbon Prosperity Summit in a European Parliament chamber on 9 February 2011, in which he lashed out at climate change skeptics. He said they are playing "a reckless game of roulette" with the planet's future and are having a "corrosive effect" on public opinion. He also spoke about the need to protect fisheries, the Amazon rain forest and about making low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive.
In 2011, he received the RSPB Medal.
Philosophies and religious beliefs
Sir Laurens van der Post became a friend of Charles in 1977, a relationship which led him to be dubbed the "guru to Prince Charles" and made godfather of Charles' son, Prince William. From him, the Prince of Wales developed a focus on philosophy, especially that of Asian and Middle Eastern nations, praising Kabbalistic artworks, and penning a memorial for Kathleen Raine, the Neoplatonist poet who died in 2003.
The Prince is known to attend services at several different Anglican churches near his home at Highgrove, Gloucestershire and is known to regularly worship at Crathie Kirk when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, he was appointed as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
The Prince of Wales also travels (amidst some secrecy) each year to Mount Athos to spend time in the Orthodox monasteries there, as well as in Romania, demonstrating his interest in Orthodox Christianity. Along with his father, who was born and raised as Greek Orthodox, Charles is patron of The Friends of Mount Athos, as well as the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies. It is also believed that Prince Charles has an Orthodox icon corner in his house where he keeps the majority of his Orthodox icons. None of this is surprising, as Prince Charles' father was raised Greek Orthodox, but converted before marrying the future Queen Elizabeth II. It is reported that in more recent years, even his father, Prince Philip has joined him in occasional retreats to the peninsula.
Charles is also patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford.
President and Mrs Bush greet The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall
Charles has demonstrated an interest in alternative medicine, and his promotion of it has caused controversy. In 2004, Charles' Foundation for Integrated Health divided the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to National Health Service patients, and in May 2006, Charles made a speech to an audience of health ministers from various countries at the World Health Assembly in Geneva, urging them to develop a plan for integrating conventional and alternative medicine and argued for homeopathy.
In April 2008, The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the Prince's Foundation to recall two guides promoting "alternative medicine", saying: "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous." A speaker for the foundation countered the criticism by stating: "We entirely reject the accusation that our online publication Complementary Healthcare: A Guide contains any misleading or inaccurate claims about the benefits of complementary therapies. On the contrary, it treats people as adults and takes a responsible approach by encouraging people to look at reliable sources of information... so that they can make informed decisions. The foundation does not promote complementary therapies." Ernst has recently published a book with science writer Simon Singh condemning alternative medicine called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. The book is ironically dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales" and the last chapter is very critical of his advocacy of "complementary" and "alternative" treatments.
The Prince's Duchy Originals produce a variety of CAM products including a “Detox Tincture” that Edzard Ernst has denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery". In May 2009, the Advertising Standards Authority criticised an email that Duchy Originals had sent out to advertise its Echina-Relief, Hyperi-Lift and Detox Tinctures products saying it was misleading. The Prince personally wrote at least seven letters to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) shortly before they relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that has been widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies.
On 31 October 2009 it was reported that Prince Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.
In 2010, following accounting irregularities noted by the auditor, two former officials at the Prince's Foundation were arrested for fraud believed to total £300,000. Four days after the arrests, the FIH announced that it would close, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health." The charity's finance director, accountant George Gray, was convicted of theft totalling £253,000 and sentenced to three years in prison. The Prince's Foundation was re-branded and re-launched in late 2010 as the College of Medicine. It continues to act as an alternative medicine lobby group.
The Prince and Princess of Wales after the wedding of The Duke and Duchess of York
The plight of various peoples has been a target of Charles' efforts, predominantly the long-term unemployed, people who have been in trouble with the law, people who are in difficulty at school, and people who have been in care. The Prince's Trust is the main outlet through which Charles works with young people, offering loans to groups, business people, and others who have had difficulty receiving outside support. Fundraising concerts are regularly held in benefit of the trust, with leading pop, rock, and classical musicians taking part. In Canada, Charles has also supported humanitarian projects, taking part, along with his two sons, in the ceremonies marking the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and helping to launch the Canadian Youth Business Foundation in Saskatchewan in 2001, when he also visited Scott Collegiate, an inner-city school in Regina.
After spending time in the Northwest Territories in 1975, Charles formed a special interest in the Canadian north, as well as Canada's Aboriginal Peoples, the leaders of which he met and sometimes took time to walk and meditate with. Reflecting this association, the Prince of Wales has been conferred with special titles from First Nations communities: in 1996 Cree and Ojibway students in Winnipeg named the Prince Leading Star, and in 2001 he was dubbed Pisimwa Kamiwohkitahpamikohk, or "the sun looks at him in a good way", during his first visit to the province of Saskatchewan. He was also one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Nicolae Ceauşescu, initiating objections in the international arena, and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation, which runs Romanian orphanages.
Charles attended the Bilderberg Group conference in 1986 specifically to attend a debate on the South African economic crisis.
An example of his concern for humanitarian issues has been his recent (2011) launch of his Pakistan Recovery Fund which aims to raise a minimum of £2million towards health, education, reconstruction and livelihood projects.
Hobbies and sports
Since his youth the Prince was an avid player of polo, as a part of competitive teams until 1992, and strictly for charity from then until 2005, after which he ceased to participate because of two notable injuries he suffered during play: in 1990 he broke his arm, and in 2001 was briefly unconscious after a fall. Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting, before the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005. By the late 1990s, as opposition to the activity was growing, the Prince of Wales' participation in this activity was viewed as a "political statement" by those opposed to it, such as the League Against Cruel Sports, which launched the attack against Charles after he took his sons on the Beaufort Hunt in 1999, at a time when the government was trying to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds. The Prince has also been a keen salmon angler since youth, and a supporter of Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic Salmon. Charles has frequently fished the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, while he claims his most special angling memories are from his time in Vopnafjörður, Iceland.
Charles has also pursued the visual arts, focusing on watercolour, and exhibiting and selling a number of his paintings, as well as publishing books on the subject. In university he dabbled in acting, appearing in amateur productions of a comedic nature, an enjoyment of which continued later into the Prince's life, as evidenced by his organising of a comedy gala to celebrate his 60th birthday. He also has an interest in illusionism, becoming a member of The Magic Circle after passing his audition by performing the cups and balls effect. The Prince acts today as patron of a number of theatres, acting troupes, and orchestral ensembles, including the Regina Symphony Orchestra, and the Royal Shakespeare Company, and is reportedly a fan of Canadian singer and song writer Leonard Cohen. He is also a collector of automobiles, particularly the British marque Aston Martin, having acquired numerous models and such tight connections with the brand–being a frequent visitor to the factory and its service department, and a guest of honour at most of the company's special launch events– that special Prince of Wales edition Aston Martins have been created on occasion.
Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club.
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall at Dundurn Castle in Hamilton, Ontario
The Queen, accompanied by the Duke and Duchess of Rothesay, during the 2006 Braemar Gathering
As Prince of Wales, Prince Charles undertakes a number of official duties on behalf of his mother, in her role as sovereign of any of the Commonwealth realms. He will frequently stand in for the Queen at the funerals of foreign dignitaries (which the Queen customarily does not attend), and at investitures into British orders. It was when he attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II that Charles caused controversy: when shaking hands with other guests, Charles was surprised to find himself shaking that of Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, who had been seated next to the Prince. Charles' office subsequently released a statement saying: "The Prince of Wales was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr. Mugabe's hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government."
Both Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall travel abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. The Prince has been regarded as an effective advocate of the country, with his visit to the Republic of Ireland, where he delivered a personally researched and written speech on Anglo-Irish affairs that was warmly received by Irish politicians and the media, being cited as an example. His service to the Canadian Armed Forces permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions. For instance, in 2001, the Prince placed a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.
Prince Charles makes regular tours of Wales, going there for a week of engagements each summer, attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd. In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales. He and the Duchess of Cornwall also spend one week each year in Scotland, where the Prince is patron of a number of Scottish organisations.
Prince Charles is a Director of "The Royal Collection Trust". and an Assistant of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights.
On 27 March 2011, Prince Charles attended in the Christchurch memorial service at Westminster Abbey for acknowledging the generosity, sympathy and support New Zealand has received from the United Kingdom since the earthquake hit. On 16 November, Prince Charles attended a special service at Westminster Abbey as the Patron of the King James Bible Trust celebrating the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible in the presence of The Queen, The Duke of Edinburgh, clerics and thousands of worshippers.
Sometimes parodied, such as on Spitting Image, and by Craig Ferguson—in a segment known as The Rather Late Programme with Prince Charles—on The Late Late Show, Prince Charles has been a focus of the world media since his birth, attention that increased as he matured. Prior to his first marriage, he was presented as the world's most eligible bachelor on the cover of Time, and his various affairs and exploits were followed and reported. With his marriage to Diana the attention increased, though predominantly towards a Princess of Wales, who became a star attraction, chased by the paparazzi, and her every move (including every change in hairstyle) closely followed by millions. As their relationship began to deteriorate, Diana began to use the media to her advantage, and became closely involved in placing stories about the royal marriage in the press, thenceforth splitting the media's support, with Charles having The Mirror and the Telegraph on his side.
Dual Cypher of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales
In their quest to gain ever more stories on a Prince of Wales, the media breached Charles' privacy on a number of occasions. In 2006, the Prince filed a court case against the Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters, such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks." Others have used their past connections with the Prince to profit from the media, such as when an ex-member of Charles' household took to the press an internal memo in which Charles commented on ambition and opportunity, and which was widely interpreted as blaming meritocracy for creating a combative atmosphere in society. In retort, Charles stated: "In my view, it is just as great an achievement to be a plumber or a bricklayer as it is to be a lawyer or a doctor," and the memo was cited in Lynne Truss' critique of British manners, Talk to the Hand, as a valid observation on how the positive motivational impact of meritocracy might be balanced against the negative impact of a competitive society.
Overall, Charles developed a dislike for the popular press, which was accidentally revealed when his comments to his son, William, during a press photo-call in 2005 was caught on a nearby microphone: "I hate doing this... These bloody people," and about the BBC's royal reporter, Nicholas Witchell, in particular: "I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."
The Prince of Wales though has appeared as himself on a number of occasions in continuing series. In 1984 he read his children's book, The Old Man of Lochnagar, on the BBC's Jackanory programme. The UK soap opera Coronation Street featured an appearance by Charles during the show's 40th anniversary in 2000, as did the New Zealand adult cartoon series bro'Town (2005), after he attended a performance by the show's creators during a tour of the country. He reportedly turned down an invitation to appear in a cameo role in an episode of Doctor Who.[dead link] Charles also continues to give interviews, such as that which was conducted by Ant & Dec for the 30th anniversary of The Prince's Trust in 2006.
Clarence House, the former London residence of the late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, is the Prince of Wales' current official residence. Previously, he resided in an apartment at St James's Palace. Charles also holds a private estate in Gloucestershire, Highgrove House, and one in Scotland, the Birkhall estate near Balmoral Castle and also previously owned by the Queen Mother. Upon the occasion of his marriage to Diana, Charles had reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits generated by the Duchy of Cornwall from 50% to 25%.
In 2007 the Prince purchased a 192–acre (150 acres of grazing and parkland, and 40 acres (160,000 m2) of woodland) property in Carmarthenshire, and applied for permission to convert the farm into a Welsh home for him and the Duchess of Cornwall, to be rented out as holiday flats when the royal couple is not in residence. Though neighbours said the proposed alterations flouted local planning regulations, the application was put on hold while a report was drafted on how the alterations would affect the local bat population. Charles and Camilla took residence at the new property, called Llwynywermod, in June 2008.
In 2006 the Prince bought a house in the village of Viscri in south-eastern Transylvania, one of the Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania designated in 1993 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; in 2008 he bought another house in the village of Valea Zălanului / Zalánpatak in the Székely Land region of Transylvania, a 16th century village probably founded by one of the Prince's Transylvanian ancestors. Both properties are rented out as guest houses when the Prince is not in residence.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
The Prince of Wales's feathers badge comprises three silver (or white) feathers rising through a gold coronet of alternate crosses and fleur-de-lys. The motto "Ich Dien" (I serve) is on a dark blue ribbon beneath the coronet.
Main article: List of titles and honours of Charles, Prince of Wales
Titles and styles
Charles has held a number of titles throughout his life, as the grandson of the monarch, the son of the monarch and, later, honoured in his own right with princely and noble titles. When in conversation with the Prince of Wales, the practice is to initially address him as Your Royal Highness and thereafter as Sir.
There has been speculation as to what regnal name the Prince will choose upon his succession to the throne. If he keeps his current first name, he will be known as Charles III. However, it was reported in 2005 that Charles has suggested he may choose to reign as George VII in honour of his maternal grandfather, and to avoid association with the Stuart kings Charles I (who was beheaded) and Charles II (who was known for his playboy lifestyle), as well as to be sensitive to the memory of Bonnie Prince Charlie, who was called "Charles III" by his supporters. Charles' office immediately denied this report.
Honours and honorary military appointments
Charles' first honorary appointment was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since that time, the Prince has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 36 military formations throughout the Commonwealth. He is also the commander of the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.
Charles has also been the recipient of a number of honours and awards from various countries. He has been inducted into eight orders and received five decorations from amongst the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 17 different appointments and decorations by foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales
The Prince's own coat of arms are the escutcheon of the arms of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom with a label for difference. The version used everywhere but Scotland is listed here. Within Scotland, the arms of the Duke of Rothesay, which quarters the arms of the Great Steward and of the Lords of the Isles, placing the arms of the heir apparent to the Scots throne on an inescutcheon in the centre, are used.
Coat of Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales.svg
Upon the Royal helm the imperial crown Proper, thereon a lion statant gardant Or crowned with the crown of the Prince of Wales
Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langed azure 2nd or a lion rampant gules armed and langued azure within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent overall an escutcheon of Royal Badge of Wales.
Dexter a lion rampant gardant Or imperially crowned Proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or
(German: I serve)
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE
(French: Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)
The whole differenced by a plain Label of three points Argent, as the eldest child of the sovereign.
Prince of Wales Standard.svg The banners used by the Prince vary depending upon location. Apart from the exceptions below, the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is used, differenced as in his arms with a label of three points argent, and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales in the centre. This is the standard that is used outside the United Kingdom by the prince and also that used throughout the entire United Kingdom when the prince is acting in an official capacity associated with the UK Armed Forces.
Prince of Wales Standard used in Wales.svg In Wales the banner is based upon the Coat of Arms of the Principality of Wales, (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consist of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon vert bearing the single-arched crown of the Prince of Wales.
Duke of Rothesay Banner.svg In Scotland the personal banner used since 1974 is based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay, (The heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles. The flag is divided into four quadrants as per the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprise a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants displaying a black galley on a silver field. The arms are differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland; defaced by a plain label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.
Duke of Rothesay Standard.svg Also used in Scotland is a standard, viz the Royal Standard of Scotland, again defaced with a label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.
Flag of the Duke of Cornwall.svg In Cornwall, the banner is "sable fifteen bezants Or", that is, a black field bearing fifteen gold coins, which Prince Charles uses in his capacity as Duke of Cornwall.
Personal Flag of the Prince of Wales for use in Canada.svg The Prince of Wales also holds a personal heraldic banner for Canada, consisting of the shield of the Canadian Royal Arms defaced with both a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of the Prince of Wales' feathers, and a white label of three points.
Three ostrich feathers encircled by a gold coronet
As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland.
[show]Ancestors of Charles, Prince of Wales
Due to the insistence of the royal family to remain to be called Windsor, Charles is a member of the House of Windsor. Those House of Windsor members who are male-line descendants of the Queen Elizabeth II belong in the male line to a cadet branch of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (also known simply as the House of Glücksburg), a branch of the House of Oldenburg, ultimately descended from Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg. The male-line descendants of the Queen Elizabeth II are distinct from other members of the House of Windsor, who are descended in male line from the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.[fn 1]
St Peter's College - Adelaide
St Peter's College, (officially The Collegiate School of St Peter, but commonly known as SPSC, St Peter's or Saints), is an independent boy's school in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Founded in 1847 by members of the Anglican Church of Australia, the school is noted for its famous alumni, including three Nobel laureates and forty-one Rhodes scholars.
Three campuses are located on the Hackney Road site near the Adelaide Parklands in Hackney.The Senior School (years 8-12) comprises the bulk of the grounds and most of the historic buildings. To the south of the site are the Preparatory School (years 3-7) and Palm House (reception-year 2). The College also owns an outdoor education campus in Finniss, near Lake Alexandrina. The School is a member of the G20 Schools group.
St Peter's is a day and boarding school and offers two matriculation streams in secondary education: the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) and the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IB).
In 2010 The Age reported that St Peter's College ranked equal fourth among Australian schools based on the number of alumni who had received a top Order of Australia honour.
Collectable Australian School Cigarette card featuring the St Peter's College colours & crest, c. 1920's.
The origins of the school lie in the ambition of the early colonists to establish for their sons an institution equivalent to the Public Schools from which they benefitted in Great Britain. They founded the Church of England Collegiate School of South Australia, or "The Collegiate School", as a proprietary school on 15 July 1847 in the schoolroom of Holy Trinity Church on North Terrace. The name Sancti Petri Schola Collegiata (SPSC) was given. The school's foundation was followed by the arrival of the first Bishop of Adelaide Augustus Short in December 1847. Short brought with him an endowment of £2,000 from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge with which he was expected establish an institution for the Church of England. He intended to use the Trinity School as the basis for this institution and had his chaplain the Reverend T.P. Wilson appointed as its Head Master. He also purchased the school's current estate in Hackney.
In 1849, negotiations between Short and the proprietors concluded, and a Council of Governors was established per their agreement. The school was rededicated as the Collegiate School of St Peter upon incorporation in July 1849. The Latin translation, Sancti Petri Schola Collegiata, is still used as the school acronym, SPSC, although it is often Anglicised to "St Peter's School Collegiate".
The school's emblem consists of a blue shield with white trim, surmounted by two golden keys and bishop's mitre (contemporary versions place the mitre within rather than above the shield, dissimilating the emblem from that of the Diocese of Gloucester). The keys represent Saint Peter while the mitre represents the school's link to the Anglican Church. Beneath the shield is a scroll with the school's Latin motto "Pro Deo et Patria", in which translates into English as "For God and Country".
 House system
Upon entering the Senior School in Year 8, all boys are assigned to a house. There are 10 houses, each named after prominent figures in the school's history. Four of these—Da Costa, Farrell, Hawkes and Short—were the original four houses founded in 1920. To accommodate the growing student population five additional houses were founded: MacDermott, Woodcock, Young, Howard and Farr. There is also a boarding house—School & Allen House, that was established in 2003 through the amalgamation of School House with Wyatt & Allen. Houses meet several times each week, and compete in various intra-school competitions throughout the year.
An 1875 drawing of the school grounds. Old School House is centre-ground and the Chapel is to the right.
The school is situated on 32 hectares of landscaped grounds only 3 kilometres from the Adelaide central business district on Hackney Road and North Terrace in the suburb St Peters. The suburb St. Peters and its neighbour College Park were named after the school. The main campus' facilities include seven ovals, a hockey pitch, ten tennis courts and two swimming pools. It features mostly heritage architecture, such as "Palm House" (built for William Peacock), but also includes modern buildings. The "Big School Room" is thought to be Australia's oldest classroom still in constant use.
The most recent addition to the school has been the extensive redevelopment of the Junior School, featuring new classrooms and lecture facilitates as well as South Australia's only school based Observatory. In the Senior school the sports centre is the most recent development, which includes two basketball courts, a 25 metre pool, a diving pool, a weights and conditioning room, and café. The school has completed the refurbishment of the old gymnasium as the new Drama Centre and is soon to commence construction of the 'Leadership and Ethics Centre' featuring lecture facilities, a new year 12 common room and the school's museum.
The College also owns an outdoor education property in Finniss, situated on several hectares of land on the banks of the River Finniss. The property includes dormitories, teacher accommodation and a gymnasium, and students are involved with the property's revegetation program of native flora.
A significant source of the school's revenue is the estate of Benjamin Mendes da Costa. Da Costa, a successful Adelaide businessman, bequeathed his estate of £20,000 to the Collegiate School of St Peter when he died in 1868. The bequest was subject to the life interests of ten relations; the last surviving relation died in 1910 and in 1912 the property was vested in the school. A large portion of the estate remains land in prominent city-centre locations. Income generated by the estate is used to subsidise the fees of all students, along with several scholarships and bursaries.
A somewhat common Adelaidean urban myth asserts that the da Costa estate was intended to be given to the Catholic church rather than the Anglican, and that the funds were awarded to Saints after a supposed legal battle. This myth has no basis in fact and most probably stems from misconceptions of da Costa's religion due to his Portuguese family name.
St Peter's College sold Da Costa Arcade, near Rundle Mall, in 2005.
 Extracurricular activities
Each student at St Peters is required to play both a summer and winter sport.
Staff and past students conduct training sessions. Weekend competitions are held at the school (or at away venues) each weekend against other schools in Adelaide. Each sport has an annual intercollegiate showdown against rivals Prince Alfred College, known as the "Intercol". Some intercols include Head of the River, Football showdown, Water Polo and The Basketball.
The school runs an extensive music program which encourages students to study musical instruments and perform in ensembles. These ensembles perform in several concerts throughout the year, both within the school and externally. Groups include an intermediate and a senior concert band, senior choir, orchestra, string orchestra, and two stage bands until recently named after prominent Australian jazz musicians James Morrison and Don Burrows.
 Outdoor Education
The Outdoor Education campus at Finniss is used by students from years 4 to 10 for annual camps. In addition, students have the opportunity to join the Exploration Society, which allows boys with a passion for outdoor activities to pursue more challenging ventures. Activities include hiking, kayaking, rockclimbing, mountain bike touring and cross country skiing.
 Exchange Program
St Peter's College's exchange program has links with schools in Germany, France, China, South Africa, England, Switzerland and Canada.
 Notable alumni
St Peter's position as a leading Adelaide school has seen many of its former students achieve renown in a variety of fields. It has educated more Nobel laureates than any other school in Australia,
St Peter's alumni include:
Three Nobel Prize winners:
Sir William Lawrence Bragg (Nobel prize in Physics, 1915)
Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey (Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1945)
J. Robin Warren (Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2005) 
42 Rhodes Scholars
Eight premiers of South Australia:
Sir John Cox Bray (1881–1884)
Sir John Downer (1885–1887 and 1892–1893)
Sir Frederick Holder (1892 and 1899–1901)
Sir Richard Butler (1905)
Sir Henry Barwell (1920–1924)
Don Dunstan (1967–1968, and 1970–1979)
David Tonkin (1979–1982)
John Bannon (1982–1992)
One premier of New South Wales:
Tom Lewis (1975–1976)
One premier of Western Australia:
George Leake (1901; 1901–1902))
Two Victoria Crosses:
Arthur Seaforth Blackburn VC CMG CBE, soldier and lawyer; awarded the Victoria Cross in 1916.
Guy George Egerton Wylly VC CB DSO, army officer; awarded the Victoria Cross in 1900.
Tom Harley (Two time premiership captain with the Geelong Football Club)
Will Minson (Current Player with the Western Bulldogs Football Club)
Darren Ng (Current Player with the Adelaide 36ers Basketball Club)
Hayden Stoeckel (Olympic swimmer, bronze and silver medallist at 2008 Olympics)
Nathan Adcock (cricketer, former captain of Southern Redbacks)
And other well known figures, including:
Andy Thomas, astronaut
Scott Hicks, film director
Keith Conlon, OAM, Television and radio personality
Hugh Possingham, Conservation & environmental planning expert, applied mathematician, academic
Walter Bagot, Architect, founder of Woods Bagot
Ian George, former Archbishop of Adelaide
Sir James Hardy, three times America's Cup skipper and renowned winemaker
Harold David Anderson, OBE, former Ambassador
Sir Denzil Ibbetson, administrator in British India, author
 See also
List of schools in South Australia
List of boarding schools
List of Victoria Crosses by School
^ Topsfield, Jewel (4 December 2010). "Ties that bind prove a private education has its awards". The Age. p. 11. The hard copy article also published a table of the schools which were ranked in the top ten places, as follows: (1st with 19 awards) Scotch College, Melbourne, (2nd with 17 awards) Geelong Grammar School, (3rd with 13 awards) Sydney Boys High School, (equal 4th with 10 awards each) Fort Street High School, Perth Modern School and St Peter's College, Adelaide, (equal 7th with 9 awards each) Melbourne Grammar School, North Sydney Boys High School and The King's School, Parramatta, (equal 10th with 6 awards each) Launceston Grammar School, Melbourne High School, Wesley College, Melbourne and Xavier College.
^ a b John Tregenza, "Collegiate School of St Peter, Adelaide, The Founding Years 1847-1878", 1996.
^ "School Houses". St Peter's College. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
^ Miller, J. S. C. (1974). "Mendes da Costa, Benjamin (1803 - 1868)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
^ Bednall, Jai (Wednesday, 26 May 2010). "PAC sends early - Intercol warning". Messenger - Eastern Courier (Adelaide, Australia).
^ Gordon, Danielle (Tuesday, 26 December 2000). "Princes reign in Intercol rivalry". The Advertiser (Adelaide, Australia).
^ Australia has produced nine Nobel Laureates. The six others are:
Frank MacFarlane Burnet 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (educated Geelong College),
John Cornforth 1975 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (educated at Sydney Boys High School),
John Eccles 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (educated at Melbourne High School),
Patrick White 1973 Nobel Prize for Literature (educated in country NSW and England),
Peter C. Doherty 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (educated at public high school in Brisbane) and
Barry Marshall 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (educated at public high schools in Perth).
This discounts Lawrence Bragg's father William Bragg (educated in England), with whom Lawrence shared the 1915 prize, and Robert Robinson (1947 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) and Bernard Katz (1970 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine) who both lived in Australia for very short periods during their careers as Australian winners of the Nobel Prize.
All details from individual winners bios at http://nobelprize.org
^ Lawrence Bragg - Biography
^ Sir Howard Florey - Biography
^ J. Robin Warren - Autobiography
^ List of South Australian Rhodes Scholars
^ Bray, Sir John Cox (1842 - 1894) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online
^ Don Dunstan Foundation | Don Dunstan: A life of achievement
^ Research Centre for the History of Food and Drink
^ Thomas Lancelot Lewis (1922 - )
^ Leake, George (1856 - 1902)
^ Blackburn, R.A (1979). "Blackburn, Arthur Seaforth (1892 - 1960)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 7 (Online ed.). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. pp. 307–308. Retrieved 2008-01-23.. Blackburn also attended Pulteney Grammar School.
^ Sweeting, A.J (1990). "Wylly, Guy George Egerton (1880 - 1962)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 12 (Online ed.). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. pp. 589–590. Retrieved 2008-01-23.. Wylly also attended The Hutchins School.
Macarthur Anglican School - Camden
Camden is a historic town of the Macarthur Region of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia in Camden Council.Camden is located 65 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, and is the administrative centre for the local government area of Camden Council. It lies on the fringe of the Sydney Metropolitan area and is close to the Sydney suburb of Campbelltown.
 Indigenous people
The area now known as Camden was originally at the northern edge of land belonging to the Gandangara people of the Southern Highlands who called it Benkennie meaning 'dry land'. North of the Nepean River were the Muringong, southernmost of the Darug people while to the east were the Tharawal people. They lived in extended family groups of 20-40 members, hunting kangaroos, possums and eels and gathering yams and other seasonal fruit and vegetables from the local area. They were described as 'short, stocky, strong and superbly built' and generally considered peaceful. However, as British settlers encroached on their land and reduced their food sources, they turned to armed resistance which ended in 1816 after many of their number were massacred .
 European settlement
Explorers first visited the area in 1795 and named it 'Cowpastures' after a herd of cattle that had disappeared was discovered there. In February 1805, Governor King instructed (apparently reluctantly) a surveyor to measure 5,000 acres (20 km²) for John Macarthur at Cowpastures, where Macarthur had been promised land by the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Lord Camden. Macarthur named his property Camden Park in honour of his sponsor.
As Macarthur's wool industry thrived, local citizens began pushing for the establishment of a town in the area to support the industry. Surveyor-General Major Thomas Mitchell suggested Macarthur surrender 320 acres (1.3 km2) of his land for the purpose to which he refused. Following his death in 1834, his children decided to subdivide the land and the first lots in the new town of Camden went on sale in 1840. By 1883, the population had grown to over 300 and a movement began to establish a local council which held its first meeting in 1889.
Between 1882 and 1962 Camden was connected to Campbelltown and Sydney by the Camden railway line. Camden is served by Camden Airport, which is mostly used by trainee pilots for flying schools, the Australian Air League, and other forms of general aviation.
Meriden School - Strathfield
Meriden, An Anglican School for Girls is an independent, Anglican, day school for girls, located in Strathfield, an inner-western suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Founded in 1897 by Mrs Jane Monckton, the school has a non-selective enrolment policy and currently caters for approximately 850 students from Pre-Kindergarten to Year 12.
Meriden is affiliated with the Association of Heads of Independent Girls' Schools (AHIGS), the Alliance of Girls Schools Australia, the Junior School Heads Association of Australia (JSHAA), and the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia (AHISA).
Meriden was founded by Jane (Jeannie) Monckton in 1897, at Agnes Street, Strathfield. Monckton had decided to home school her two sons due to a lack of suitable educational facilities for boys in the Strathfield area. Friends and neighbours clamoured to have their children join the two boys under her instruction, and so it was decided to establish Meriden, a school with approximately 19 students and two staff to assist. Boarding facilities were available and fees for tuition were from 1 ½ guineas ($3.15) to 2 guineas per quarter for the regular curriculum, which included English, French, Latin, Mathematics, Australian History, Music, Needlework and Dancing.
In 1907, Meriden moved to Woodward Avenue, where it was sold to Bertha Turner in 1908. Turner continued at Woodward avenue until larger premises could be found near Santa Sabina College on the Boulevarde, moving again soon after to its current location in the original Redmire Estate, on Redmyre Road. The school expanded in 1914 with the purchase two properties, The Briars, located adjacent to Meriden, and the original site at Redmyre Road.
In 1918, following the 1916 changes to Department of Education requirements, Turner approached the Sydney Church of England Girls' Grammar School (S.C.E.G.G.S) in Darlinghurst with the concept of amalgamation. Further negotiations were however prevented due to financial commitments, and the S.C.E.G.G.S council suggested that a group of local church people might be interested. The first school uniform and the school logo were introduced in 1921, and in 1922 the Meriden flag was presented by the Old Girls' Union.
As Turner's health deteriorated, there was a suspicion that the school might close, and subsequently a group of local people met to discuss the future of Meriden. It was agreed that a Council should manage the school, and debentures were sold in order to obtain the necessary finance. The original home, Wariora, of which was owned by Turner, was not included in this transfer but remained her property. On her death, Wariora was transferred to her brother, who sold it on to the gardener and his wife, who in turn ran it as a boarding house. This property was eventually purchased by Meriden.
Meriden, view from Redmyre Road
After Turner's death, Grace Overy was appointed by the Council as the new Headmistress. In 1927, sports practice was carried out at the cow pastures in the grounds of a ruined mansion named Milroy in Broughton Road, Strathfield. The end of this decade saw a growing and profitable school.
In 1942, Meriden temporarily became the home of two schools as the Presbyterian Ladies' College (P.L.C), from the nearby suburb of Croydon, was occupied by the Royal Australian Air Force for the purpose of establishing a top secret Radar Unit. Meriden offered to accommodate the P.L.C boarders and the school's singing, domestic science, and physical education classes. In spite of the apparent happy relationship between the two schools, the P.L.C Principal, recommended that further integration between the two school's should not proceed, and thus at the end of 1942, Meriden indicated that they could no longer house the P.L.C boarders.
In 1979, as with numerous other schools at the time, Meriden closed its boarding facility due to a steady decline in enrolments.
1897 – 1908 Mrs Jeannie Monckton, Founder
1908 – 1925 Miss Bertha Turner
1926 – 1940 Miss Grace Overy
1941 – 1957 Miss Elsie Hannam
1958 Acting Principal – Miss Eleanor Colborn
1959 – 1961 Miss Evelyn James
1961 – 1965 Miss Joy Fox
1966 – 1984 Miss Sheila Morton
1985 – 2002 Mrs Denise Thomas
2003 – 2006 Mrs Carolyn Blanden
2006 Acting Principal – Mrs Denise Thomas
2007 – Present Dr Julie Greenhalgh
 School crest
Meriden's crest was designed by the school's art teacher, Mr Albert Collins, in 1921. The crest features Meriden's motto of Semper Fidelis (translated from Latin as "always faithful"), together with a representation of the lilies of Parnassus. In ancient Greece, Mount Parnassus was regarded as the mountain sacred to the muses and the centre of the earth. The muses were said to preside over the realm of learning, with each having a special province, such as poetry, science or history.
 House system
Meriden school currently has four houses:
Each year, the students are to vote for their new captain (Year 11 student). Supporting their house captain are the positions of sports captain, arts captain and service captain.
Through the house system, students participate in inter-house sporting and non-sporting competitions in order to gain points for their house. The house with the most points at the end of the school years is awarded the Wallis Cup.
 Notable alumnae
Elizabeth Broderick – Sex Discrimination Commissioner and former partner and head of legal technology at Blake Dawson Waldron
Silma Ihram – Muslim Advocate, Founder of the Noor Al Houda Islamic College (also attended Presbyterian Ladies' College)
Julia Marion King (née Moufarrige) – Director of Opera Australia; Current Director of Servcorp Ltd, Fairfax Media, and Carla Zampatti Pty Ltd; Former Chief Executive of Louis Vuitton Australia, Executive Chair of Retail Cube, Country Road Clothing, Australian National Railways etc. (also attended SCEGGS Darlinghurst)
Entertainment, media and the arts
Desmonde Florence Downing – Stage designer
Kellie Hoggart – Member of Australia's Hi-5 group
Chrissie Rose – Former co-host of television program Girl TV (also attended Presbyterian Ladies' College, MLC School and Reddam House)
Nadia Wheatley – Writer
Sarah Monahan - actress on Hey Dad..!
Natalie Tran- Community Channel
Medicine and science
John Nelson Sevier – Physician (also attended Sydney Church of England Grammar School)
Danielle LeRay – Olympic Rhythmic Gymnast- Sydney 2000
Naazmi Johnston – Olympic Rhythmic Gymnast- Beijing 2008 and Commonwealth Games Gymnast- 2010 (2 time gold medalist)
 Associated schools
Meriden's 'brother school' is Trinity Grammar School at Summer Hill, an Anglican Day and Boarding School for Boys.
Every year, Meriden hosts an "Interact Dance". Participating schools are often Santa Sabina College, MLC School, Presbyterian Ladies College Sydney, Trinity Grammar School at Summer Hill, Newington College and St Patrick's College, Strathfield.
Pulteney Grammar School - Adelaide
Pulteney Grammar School is an independent, Anglican, co-educational, day school, located on South Terrace in Adelaide, South Australia.
The original trustees met in May 1847 to establish a school for the children of Adelaide and after 12 months, on Monday, 29 May 1848, Pulteney Street School opened. The School was a foundation of the Church of England but was open to those of all faiths and denominations. Town Acre No. 228 at the corner of Pulteney and Flinders Streets was bought and a school building was erected immediately north of the present St. Paul’s Restaurant. At the end of the first week there were 50 names on the roll and by December, 270.
Of 17 headmasters, some have guided the School’s destiny for many years (W.S. Moore, 24 years, W.P. Nicholls, 41, and W.R. Ray, 26) while others have been in charge for as little as three months.
The School was located in Pulteney Street until the Repatriation Commission compulsorily acquired the property in 1919. While a new building was being erected in South Terrace, the School relocated to Hindmarsh Square, then to Wakefield Street. The new building was opened by the Governor-General (Lord Forster) on 3 July 1921.
The new school (now called Pulteney Grammar School) cost more than expected - inflation in the 1920s was followed by depression and two rooms had to be added in 1924. The outcome was financial worry, delayed maintenance and no improvement of facilities. Staffing difficulties during the Second World War threatened closure by 1946, with Rev. W.R. Ray being given three years to save the school. Ray subsequently initiated several significant developments. Year 11 (Leaving) was added in 1951 and Year 12 (Leaving Honours) in 1953 and with older boys in the School, it was possible to compete in sports on equal terms with other schools, after ovals had been watered and developed in the south parklands formerly used for the grazing of cattle. With enrolment increasing, additional land on South Terrace and Gilles Street was acquired.
For nearly 100 years the Trustees adopted the interesting method of "farming out" the School to the Headmaster who was supposed to pay a small rental. In troubled times this did not happen, the resources of the Trustees were stretched to breaking point and useful reserves for maintenance and developments could not be set aside. Since 1943, the Council of Governors has been responsible for all financial matters.
In 1998 merger discussions commenced with Woodlands, an Anglican girls school in Glenelg following several years of declining enrolments. These negotiations collapsed and no merger occurred. Woodlands closed in 1998 and Pulteney became fully coeducational in 1999 (having already enrolled girls at Reception to Year 2 from 1998).
In 2002 Pulteney opened the Mackinnon Building on South Terrace to house the innovative Kurrajong programme for Early Learning Centre to year 2 students.
In 2010, Annesley College sought discussions with Pulteney regarding amalgamation.
 School demographics
The school's footbridge over South Terrace
As of 2006, the school has more than 800 students enrolled and over 120 teaching and non-teaching staff. Pulteney is composed of four sub-schools located on the same campus. The 'Kurrajong' and the ELC (Early Learning Centre) for students up to year 2, Prep School for years 3-6, Middle School for years 7-9 and "one ninety" (Senior School) for the final years 10-12.
From 2001, Pulteney replaced its school prefects with elected representatives which form the school Forum, led by a President and Vice President.
 Notable alumni
Bruce Abernethy, former AFL player and sports news reader.
Charles Ashwin, 1952. Rhodes Scholar for South Australia.
Simon Best, 1973. Rhodes Scholar for South Australia.
Arthur Seaforth Blackburn VC, soldier and lawyer; Winner of the Victoria Cross
Les Murray, SBS broadcaster and Member of the Order of Australia
Lewis Fitz-Gerald, actor.
Josh Francou, player for North Adelaide Roosters(SANFL) and Port Adelaide Football Club(AFL) Australian rules football clubs.
Peter Gibbard, 1991. Rhodes Scholar for South Australia.
Jordan McMahon, current player in the AFL for the Richmond Tigers.
Mark Mussared, 1976. Rhodes Scholar for South Australia.
John Pritchard, 1935. Rhodes Scholar for South Australia.
Frank Pritchard current NRL Player, Penrith Panthers
Sean Williams, science fiction author
Andrew Leipus, sports physiotherapist
Newington College Preparatory - School Killara
Newington College was founded in 1863. Its establishment was the result of a growing view in the Wesleyan Methodist Church in the previous decade that an institution for education at a level higher than elementary was needed in Sydney. Rev John Manton (1807–1864) was the leading advocate and became the College’s first president on its foundation.
History All Schools XI 1920
History Cadets NCOs 1886
History GPS Athletics 1921
History Head of the River 1921
History NC Football Club 1891
The ‘Wesleyan Collegiate Institution’ was established at Newington House, on the banks of the Parramatta River at Silverwater, the former home of colonial merchant and landowner’ John Blaxland. The College opened its doors on 16 July 1863 with 16 students aged between eight and 22. The College was conceived as ‘…decidedly Wesleyan in its character [but] … open to the sons of parents of all religious denominations.’ The College also functioned as the home for theological training for the Methodist Church in NSW until 1914.
The need for a larger and permanent home for the College was met by the move to the College’s present site at Stanmore. The Founders Wing, designed by leading colonial architect Thomas Rowe, was constructed between 1874 and 1880. Some 70 boys and four theological students moved from Silverwater in July 1880 and the new school was formally opened on 18 January 1881. The College’s name changed to ‘Newington College’ in 1880.
The College continued to grow during the following decades. Some boys undertook a classical education and a growing proportion went on to study at the University of Sydney, the city’s only university at the time. Others, particularly boys destined for a career in business, studied in the ‘modern’ stream. Many country boys spent a couple of years at the College to finish their education before starting a working life on the land.
Cricket, rugby and other sports were played from the early years of the College, with Newington and The King’s School playing the first inter-school rugby match in 1870. Newington joined the newly established Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales (AAGPS) in 1892. With one of the oldest school cadet units in the country, established in 1869, rifle shooting was as prominent a sport as cricket and rugby in the years before the First World War. The College was late in adopting rowing as a sport, but made a spectacular debut to win the Head of the River in 1921.
The College’s magazine (now its annual), The Newingtonian, started publication in 1884 and its alumni association, the Old Newingtonians’ Union, was established in 1895.
The World Wars and the Depression
Some 630 former students and staff are known to have served in Australia’s armed forces during the First World War. Of these, 109 are known to have been killed. In the Second World War, some 815 served, of whom 58 are known to have given their lives.
Like most independent schools, Newington College was affected by the Depression. From a peak of 335 students in 1925, enrolments dropped to 260 in 1932 and remained at around that level for the rest of the 1930s. The College sought to attract new enrolments by improving facilities. In 1938, Wyvern House, the biggest building project since the Founders Wing, provided a new home for the College’s Preparatory School. In 1932 a standardised school uniform was adopted and a house system was introduced.
The College grew rapidly in the years following the Second World War, reaching 600 boys in 1952 and 970 by 1960. This growth was accompanied by a succession of building projects through the 1950s and early 1960s which transformed the school landscape and the quality of facilities.
A second preparatory school opened at Killara, on Sydney’s North Shore, in 1957, moving to its present site in neighbouring Lindfield in 1967. In the 1970s and 1980s, academic and sporting achievements were joined by a growing emphasis on cultural activities, particularly in the performing arts, and on service activities, leading to the rich variety of experience that characterises school life today. At the same time the cultural backgrounds of the student body changed in reflection of Australia’s increasingly multicultural society.
The College celebrated its centenary in 1963. With the approach of its sesquicentenary in 2013, Newington College and its community have a new opportunity to learn about and celebrate its history.
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Abbotsleigh School for Girls (commonly referred to as Abbotsleigh) is an independent, Anglican, day and boarding school for girls, located in Wahroonga, on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Established in 1885 on Sydney's North Shore, the school has a selective enrolment policy from Year 5 upwards and currently caters for approximately 1,850 students from Kindergarten to Year 12, including 300 boarders from Years 7 to 12.
Abbotsleigh is a member of the Alliance of Girls' Schools Australasia (AGSA), the Junior School Heads Association of Australia (JSHAA), the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia (AHISA), the Australian Boarding Schools' Association (ABSA), and a founding member of the Association of Heads of Independent Girls' Schools (AHIGS).
Advertisement for Abbotsleigh, 1899
Abbotsleigh was founded in 1885 in a small terrace house in North Sydney. The school then moved to Parramatta, first to Honiton House, and then to more spacious premises at the corner of Church and Marsden streets, a site now covered by a car park. The school proved successful in Parramatta, and in 1895 Miss Marian Clarke left 80 pupils behind to set out for a year in England for family reasons. The school declined during her absence, and on her return only a small number of boarders remained.
Abbotsleigh's final move was to its current location at Wahroonga in 1898, where the school's founder, Miss Marian Clarke, purchased land and built her new school. It is here that Abbotsleigh became the first girls' school in Sydney to have a sports field.
1885 – 1913 Marian Clarke
1913 – 1924 Margaret Murray
1924 – 1930 Dorothea Poole
1931 – 1954 G Gordon Everett
1954 – 1957 Ruth Hirst
1958 – 1970 HE (Betty) Archdale
1970 – 1987 Kathleen McCredie
1988 – 1996 Diane C Nicholls
1996 – 2004 Judith Wheeldon
2005 – Present Judith Poole
Marian Clarke Building, Abbotsleigh (Elevation)
The senior and junior campuses cater for 1300 students in total from Transition to Year 12 (Higher School Certificate).
The Junior School is located on Woonona Ave, Wahroonga. Poole House is the oldest building on campus and features an after-school care and music centre with a number of music rooms for individual lessons and practice. The library, school hall and administration centre are housed in the same block as the junior years' classrooms. In 2002 a new Years 4-6 centre was built surrounding a grassy courtyard featuring a state-of-the-art Arts facility as well as a new canteen for the students. Sporting facilities include a large oval, outdoor pool, three tennis courts, 2 courtyards, two sets of play equipment and a human-sized chess board. An uderground parking facility was built in 2007 with two tennis courts built above. The new Early Learning Centre was completed in January 2010. It includes new Infants precinct and an Early Learning Centre for the youngest learners from birth to five years old. It is a seventy-place, coeducational centre providing long day care. Girls of the age of 5 are now able to enter the school in the Transition class (preschool age) where they are able to make the smooth transition from preschool to kindergarten. According to the Abbotsleigh website, the ELC will be run according to the Reggio Emillia approach.
The senior school is at a separate campus on the Pacific Highway, and incorporates a number of facilities including a 350 seat auditorium, large assembly hall, Senior Studies Centre, Aquatic Centre and two gymnasiums. Other sporting facilities include 11 tennis courts, one indoor netball/basketball centre, weights gym, 2 cricket nets, a 25-metre indoor pool and two large ovals used for hockey, touch football and soccer. A new library named the Abbotsleigh Research Centre (ARC) was built and officially opened on 2 April 2006. The ARC contains the Library Teaching Room (LTR) – a computer room, laptops that can be used on tables around the ARC, and three seminar rooms. There are over 40,000 books, over 4,000 videos and DVDs and approximately 70 Periodical titles. The ARC has won awards for its unique interior design. The ARC includes a new Art Centre which has three classrooms, an Arts staffroom and a number of storage spaces. A large outdoor area incorporated into the design, with 6 tables for students and sails, is often used for a number of school events overlooking the top oval. In addition to this a new canteen was built over the spring holidays in 2008 to join with the Saturday morning sport canteen, featuring new outdoor cafe-style eating areas overlooking the oval.
 Motto and crest
The Abbotsleigh motto, Tempus celerius radio fugit, may be translated from Latin as "Time flies faster than the weaver's shuttle". As the shuttle flies a pattern is woven; the shuttle of time also weaves a pattern of which the threads are people, buildings and events. The motto was given to the school by Miss Marian Clarke, whose family crest was a weaver's shuttle surrounded by the motto, Tempus fugit radio celerit. The school used this form until 1924, when it decided that the ungrammatical Latin should be changed to the present word order, which has been used ever since.
The reference to the weaver's shuttle is also believed by many to be a reference to the "proper" place of women in terms of domestic duties/servitude to men. Some members of the school community are calling for the motto to be changed in order to keep pace with modern views on feminine rights.
The 1934 edition of The Weaver explains the symbolism of the school crest: "the lion for the strength in God, lillies for purity and fish as the symbol of Christianity through baptism."
 Associated schools
Abbotsleigh has a number of international sister schools and exchange agreements with other institutes, including the École Alsacienne in Paris, France, Ohtani High School, Japan, Miami's Palmer Trinity School, Queenswood School in Hertfordshire, England, and Ridley College in Ontario, Canada. Girls have the opportunity to host an incoming exchange student or, in Years 9 and 10, to attend one or more of these schools on exchange for a period of one or two terms.
Abbotsleigh offers an extensive range of subjects. In Year 8, students choose elective subjects to study for Years 9 and 10. Students must study Maths, English, Science, PDHPE, Australian History/Geography, and Christian Studies. They may then choose three elective subjects from: Commerce, Elective History, Elective Geography, Design and Technology, Information Software Technology, Music, Drama, Visual Arts, Photography and Digital Media, Japanese, French, German, and Latin. Mandarin has currently replaced Japanese for 2010 Year 7 girls and will remain this way for all girls that will enter Abbotsleigh Senior School through Year 7. For girls studying Japanese in older grades will still continue to do so.
In the Upper School, students have an even wider range of subjects to choose from, which follow the Board of Studies HSC syllabus. Subjects offered include English (Standard, Advanced, Extension 1 and Extension 2), Maths (General, 2-unit, Extension 1 and Extension 2), sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth and Environmental science, Senior Science), histories (Modern, Ancient and Extension History), social sciences (Business Studies, Geography, Economics), Music (1, 2, extension), a wide range of languages including French, German, Latin and Japanese, Art, PDHPE, Information Processes and Technology, Software Processes Technology, Drama, Design and Technology, Theology and Studies of Religion (1-unit only unlike many other religious independent schools).
Students can participate in a number of extracurricular activities. Most girls participate in at least one activity, if not many. Abbotsleigh has over 15 girls achieve the Gold Duke of Edinburgh Award each year, which is presented at the school's Speech Day in December. Additionally students may participate in chess teams, debating, mock trial, public speaking, ski team, jewellery making, sewing classes, film club, SRC, Environment Club, and a number of charity and service groups. Students from Year 10 are selected to form the charity and service group boards with students taking the positions of president, secretary, treasurer and club member. The school also has an Agricultural group (Ag Club) for the boarders where two cattle are raised between January and April for a number of competitions including the Sydney Royal Easter Show. I
There is also a dance program of considerable size at the school, with over 500 girls from Kindergarten to Year 11 participating in several types of dance such as street, tap and contemporary.
The school competes in many Independent Girls' Schools Sporting Association (IGSSA) sports including, softball, tennis, swimming, basketball, soccer, athletics, cross country, hockey, netball, waterpolo, touch football, and cricket. Abbotsleigh provides much of the sport equipment including tennis racquets, balls, skipping ropes, hockey sticks, rugby balls, golf sets, etc. It is compulsory for Abbotsleigh girls to do PE once a week to enhance their physical activity until Year 11.
With its close neighbour Knox Grammar School, Abbotsleigh has an orchestra named KAYO (Knox/Abbotsleigh Youth Orchestra). Through KAYO, students may choose to participate in musical tours around the world. Abbotsleigh also has several bands and string groups including the Orchestra, Symphonic Winds, Jazz Ensemble and numerous string quartets. From Year 7 onwards girls are invited to participate in vocal groups, for example the Vocal Ensemble, the Chapel Choir and the Chamber Choir. Also available are the Gospel Choir and Years 7 to 12 Choir, which invite anyone to join without an audition. Abbotsleigh's main ensembles are the orchestra and concert band which are involved in the Yamaha Festivals. The more junior ensembles are the string ensemble and wind ensemble which are mainly for girls from Years 7 to 9 and for girls who are not highly accomplished musicians but are willing to commit to an ensemble.
 House system
The House System was introduced by Miss Everett. The Weaver for May 1931 explains: "Points are awarded for work, conduct and sport and a shield will be presented annually to the winning House. "The "Malloch Shield", given the following year by Mr A Malloch, was won for the first time by Sturt.
In the Junior School there are five houses:
Blaxland (blue) Named after Gregory Blaxland (1778–1853), an Australian explorer and pioneer farmer.
Lawson (green) Named after William Lawson (1774–1850), an Australian explorer.
Macquarie (red) Named after Lachlan Macquarie (1771–1824), the Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1801.
Sturt (yellow) Named after Charles Sturt (1795–1869), an Australian explorer.
Wentworth (purple) Named after William Wentworth (1790–1872), an Australian explorer, statesman and lawyer.
In the Senior School there are eight houses:
Chisholm (dark blue) Named after Caroline Chisholm (1808–1877), an Australian pioneer.
Franklin (green) Named after Miles Franklin, an acclaimed Australian author.
Gilmore (brown until 1982, now pink) Named after Mary Gilmore (1865–1962), an Australian poet and writer.
Melba (light blue) Named after Dame Nellie Melba, an Australian opera singer.
Prichard (black until 1990, now purple) Named after Katherine Susannah Prichard (1884–1969), an Australian writer.
Richardson (orange) Named after Ethel Florence Lindesay Richardson (1870–1946), an Australian novelist.
Tennant (yellow) Named after Kylie Tennant (1912–1988), an Australian World War II and Great Depression novelist.
Wright (red) Named after Judith Wright (1915–2000), an Australian poet.
The House System has been modified over time to reflect the changing needs of the School, and its increased enrolment. One of the most significant changes occurred in the late 1960s under then Headmistress Betty Archdale. Senior School Houses had previously been named after well-known male Australian poets, and Archdale introduced new house names recognising accomplished Australian women. This was the basis for the Senior School Houses in use today. Houses now compete for the House Choir banner and the Spirit Cup, as well as the Sports Cup. Since 2008 girls have organised get-to-know-each-other events and House Days where students of the same house assemble at lunch time and have a large "house picnic".
Abbotsleigh has offered boarding since its establishment, and currently caters for boarding students from the greater metropolitan area, rural New South Wales and overseas. The school currently has five boarding houses:
Hirst Opened in 1980 and 1985. Catering for Year 12 boarders. Now replaced by the newly opened Wheeldon House.
Lynton Opened in 1969. Catering for Year 7 boarders.
McCredie Opened in 1990. Catering for Year 9 to 10 boarders.
Vindin Opened in 1931. Catetring for Year 8 to 9 boarders.
Wheeldon Opened in 2008. Catering for Year 11 to 12 boarders
There are currently approximately 150 boarders at Abbotsleigh from Years 7 to 12. Boarders make up about one-sixth of the senior school population.
 Notable alumnae
Ingrid Clare Barnsley – Rhodes Scholar 2002
Kathleen McCredie – Educator; Former principal of Abbotsleigh
Merrilee Roberts – Educator, former principal of Newcastle Girls' Grammar School and Ascham School
Elizabeth Ward; Educator; Former principal of the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Melbourne
Freda Whitlam AM – Lay Preacher of the Uniting Church; Sister of former Prime Minister Gough Whitlam; Former principal of the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney (also attended Canberra Girls' Grammar School)
Entertainment, media and the arts
Nicole Alexander – Author
Edwina Bartholomew – Seven News reporter
Erica Baxter – Singer and model; wife of James Packer
Nell Campbell – Actor; played Colombia in The Rocky Horror Picture Show
Jill Ker Conway – Author
Georgie Parker – Actress
Jennifer Oswin Rowe – Children's book author under pen name Emily Rodda
Helen de Guerry Simpson – Novelist (also attended Kincoppal-Rose Bay)
Grace Cossington Smith – Artist
Medicine and science
Agnes Elizabeth Lloyd Bennett – Pioneering medical practitioner and scientist (also attended Cheltenham Ladies' College, Dulwich Girls' High School and Sydney Girls High School)
Cindy Pan – Doctor, dancer, television personality
Politics, public service and the law
Beatrice Miles – Bohemian rebel and political activist
Sue Fear – First Australian woman to climb Mount Everest (also attended Barker College)
Margaret Elizabeth Maynard Peden – Cricketer; former captain of the Australian women's cricket team (1934)
Liz Ellis – Australian national netball player
Hannah Campbell-Pegg Australian Luge Winter Olympian
Prince Alfred College Adelaide
Prince Alfred College (also referred to as PAC or Princes, and in sporting circles The Reds) is an independent, day and boarding school for boys, located on Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town, near the centre of Adelaide, South Australia. Prince Alfred College was established in 1869 by the Methodist Church of Australasia, which amalgamated with other Protestant churches in 1977 to form the Uniting Church in Australia.
The school has enrolment of some 1,000 students from reception and educational year groups one to twelve (ages 4 to 18), including some 100 boarders from years seven to twelve. Prince Alfred College launched its own kindergarten Little Princes in 1999, and claims to have the largest "Old Scholars" organisation (by membership) in the southern hemisphere.
Senior students study to achieve the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE), or undertake the International Baccalaureate (IB) diploma programme as an alternative, with some achieving IB marks of 44 and 45 out of 45 in recent years.
Prince Alfred College, c.1879
Prince Alfred College was named after Alfred, one of the four sons of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert. Being named after a member of the Royal Family of the Commonwealth Realms, the school has attracted royal visitors since its foundation, including Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip.
The founders of PAC were determined that the religious traditions of John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, should be indoctrinated in the school. Young Methodist men of the colony and PAC were encouraged to live disciplined, hard working and predominantly Christian lives, even though they were mocked facing society’s temptations.
By the year of PAC's foundation in 1869, the population of Adelaide was estimated to be the second highest in the continent. No South Australian country town, however, had a population greater than 10,000. At the same time, nearly all the land in the city of Adelaide, laid out by Colonel Light, had been occupied. Across the parklands that surrounded the city were well established residential suburbs such as Kent Town and Norwood to the east and industrial precincts such as Hindmarsh and Thebarton to the west. The suburb of Kent Town, along with the city itself, formed a consolidated urban area in which the school was located.
In September 2005 it was revealed that the College held 70,000 shares in Coopers Brewery, received in a bequest. At the time, Coopers were the subject of an unsolicited takeover bid by Japanese-controlled brewer Lion Nathan, and the shares were valued at between $18 million and $22 million. At the same time, the College was involved in a $15 million redevelopment project and was appealing to parents and former students for $3.5 million to enable building to begin. Although Coopers made a "counter offer" of a share buy-back (with attractive tax benefits) to those shareholders who may be wishing to sell, the college chose not to sell any of its holding.
 List of headmasters
Collectable School Cigarette card featuring the PAC colours & crest, c. 1910s
1869 – 1870 Mr Samuel Fiddian
1871 – 1875 Mr John Hartley
1876 – 1914 Mr Frederic Chapple
1915 – 1926 Mr William Bayly
1930 – 1948 Mr Fred Ward
1949 – 1969 Mr John Dunning
1970 – 1987 Mr Geoffrey Bean
1988 – 1999 Dr Brian Webber
2000 – 2004 Dr Stephen Codrington
2004 – Present Mr Kevin Tutt
The school's internal competitions are between "Houses"; the "House" system has been in use at PAC since its inception. There have generally been four houses, and these have generally been named after significant people in the school's history.
Currently, the PAC Houses are Taylor (Green), Cotton (Blue), Watsford (Orange) and Waterhouse (Yellow).
At the time of the school's centenary (1969), the houses were Bayly (Red), Cotton (Blue), Waterhouse and "School"; all boarders were members of School house.
College rowing team, 1891
Rowing began at PAC in 1883 and has played an important part in the school's sporting culture since that time. The school has two boat houses, at West Lakes and by the Torrens Lake in the City of Adelaide's parklands. The school employs a full time Director of Rowing. Although competition in local and national regattas form an integral part of the rowing programme, the main event for each year is the Head of the River. 2008 marked the 125th year of rowing at Princes.
Each sports team at Princes has an annual fixture against traditional longtime rivals Saint Peter's College, known as the "Intercol" (Inter-collegiate). These are considered by the two colleges to be the most important games of the seasons, and the fiercely fought matches of the more popular sports draw big crowds of students and old scholars from both schools. The Intercols have been played for over 100 years. At one time, the Australian Rules Football and the Cricket intercols were both played on Adelaide Oval. The Cricket Intercollegiate match has been competed in since 1878. According to Richard Sproull this is "the oldest unbroken annual contest in the history of cricket" (Weekend Australian 5/6 December 1992).
 Outdoor education
The Prince Alfred College Outdoor Education programme provides a variety of integrated activities designed to allow boys to face challenges beyond those possible in a suburban day school. Current activities are focused on the Scotts Creek Outdoor Centre at Morgan on the River Murray.
In 2008, the college opened its Wambana Campus at Point Turton on the Yorke Peninsula. Year 9 students spend 5 weeks at the new facility, learning field science and mathematics along with other subjects and life skills as well as community service.
Year 11 students undertake practical leadership training and are encouraged to nominate for trips to Nepal, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea or Kangaroo Island.
 Notable alumni
See Category:Old Reds
Notable old scholars of Princes include:
 Rhodes Scholars
The Rhodes Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship for study at Oxford University. South Australian recipients who attended PAC include:
College at Oxford
William Douglas Allen (1914-) 1937 New College
Henry Brose (1890–1965) 1913 Christ Church
Garry Leslie Brown 1964 Magdalen
Theodor Siegfried Dorsch 1933 Christ Church
David Wyke Evans 1957 New College
Henry Fry (1886–1959) 1909 Balliol
Sir Brian Hone (1907–1978) 1930 New College
Stanford Howard 1919 Christ Church
Norman Jolly (1882–1954) 1904 Balliol
Cecil Madigan (1889–1947) 1911 Magdalen
Roger Gilbert Opie 1951 Christ Church
Renfrey Potts (1925–2005) 1948 Queen's
Howard Luscombe Rayner 1916 Balliol
David Alexander Robertson 1983 Magdalen
Peter Lindsay Rogers 1963 New College
Michael Ewers Smyth 1960 Exeter
Stephen Kidman Wilkinson 1982 New College
Ryan Paul Manuel 2006 Merton
Henry Brose (1890–1965), Professor of Physics - University of Nottingham
William Cowley (1953-), Professor of Communication and Signal Processing - University of South Australia
Nick Martin (1950-), Professor of Genetic Epidemiology - Queensland Institute of Medical Research
Renfrey Potts (1925–2005), Professor of Applied Mathematics - University of Adelaide
Con Stough - Professor of Psychology - Swinburne University
Tim Cooper (1955-), CEO of Coopers Brewery
Glenn Cooper (1952-), Executive Chairman of Coopers Brewery
Robert Gerard, Businessman, previously Chairman of Gerard Industries
Greg Siegele, Co-founder of Ratbag Games Pty Ltd
Sir Edward Holden (1885–1947), Founder of Holden, vehicle manufacturer
 Entertainment, media and the arts
David Basheer, Soccer commentator and analyst on SBS
Bob Francis (1939-), Radio Presenter FIVEaa
Sir Robert Helpmann (1909–1986), Ballet dancer, actor, director and choreographer
Graham Jenkin, Poet, composer and historian
Hayley Lever (1876–1958), Painter
Sir John Ashton (1881–1963), Painter and Director of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales
Adam Liaw, MasterChef Australia Winner 2010
Rex Heading, the creator of Humphrey B. Bear whose show went on to win two Logies; former managing director of Channel Nine 
Duncan Chessell (1970-), Mountaineer
Cecil Madigan (1889–1947), Explorer, Geologist, Rhodes Scholar, University Lecturer
Sir Raphael Cilento, medical practitioner and public health administrator
Bill Griggs, Doctor
Brian Kenneth Hobbs (1937–2004), Doctor
Brian Sando, Olympic team and Adelaide Crows Club Doctor
Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell VC (1884–1933), Soldier, farmer, awarded the Victoria Cross
John Alexander Raws, journalist and WW1 diarist, killed in action 23 Aug 1916 at Pozieres - no known grave
Leonard Taplin, DFC, World War flier, fighter ace, pioneer aerial photographer and aerial cartographer.
 Politics, public service and the law
Harold Boas (1883–1980), architect and town planner, Perth
Cory Bernardi (1969-), Senator for South Australia since 2006
Sir John Lavington Bonython (1875–1960), editor of The Advertiser, Lord Mayor of Adelaide (1927-1930)
Grant Chapman (1949-), Member for Division of Kingston (1975-1983) in the Australian House of Representatives, and Senator for South Australia (1988-2008)
Charles Glover (1870-1936), first Lord Mayor of the City of Adelaide (1919)
Lionel Logue (1880-1953), speech therapist who successfully treated King George VI's stammer
Sir Geoffrey Reed (1892–1970), judge in the Supreme Court of South Australia, first Director-General of ASIO
Nick Xenophon (1959-), Independent MP
Herbert Basedow (1881–1933), Anthropologist, geologist, explorer, politician
Henry Brose (1890–1965), Physicist, translator, pathologist, biochemist, academic, Rhodes Scholar
Thomas Draper Campbell (1893–1967), Anthropologist, Professor of Dentistry
Sir John Burton Cleland (1878–1971), Naturalist, microbiologist, mycologist, ornithologist, Professor of Pathology
Henry Fry (1886–1959), Physician, anthropologist, Rhodes Scholar
Ren Potts (1925–2005), Applied mathematician, Rhodes Scholar, defined the Potts model
Cecil Madigan (1889–1947), Explorer, Geologist, Rhodes Scholar, University Lecturer
Greg Blewett (1971-)
Greg Chappell (1948-), Australian captain 1975-1977, 1979–1983
Ian Chappell (1943-), Australian captain 1971-1975
Trevor Chappell (1952-)
Joe Darling (1870–1946), Australian captain 1899-1902, 1902–1903, 1905
Clem Hill (1877–1945), Australian captain 1910-1912
Tim May (1962-)
Paul Rofe (1981-)
James Smith (1988-)
Ashley Woodcock (1947-)
Wayne Jackson (1944-), CEO of the AFL (1996–2003)
Craig Kelly (1966-), former Collingwood player
Ed Lower (1987-), North Melbourne Kangaroos
Nick Lower (1987-), Fremantle Dockers
Rodney Maynard (1966-), former Adelaide Crows player
David Pittman (1969-), former Adelaide Crows player
Luke Tapscott (1991-), Melbourne Demons
Jack Trengove (1991-), Melbourne Demons
Bernie Vince (1985-), Adelaide Crows
Sam Day (1992-), Gold Coast Suns
Tim Weatherald, Sturt (SANFL), Magarey Medallist 2002